About the Author
Professor Pallathadka Keshava Bhat was born
in the south of India on January 3, 1940. His parents brought him up in constant
contact with nature and created in him a loving concern for it. He is married to
Devaki and the couple has four children.
Prof. Bhat studied at the University of
Madras from 1955 to 1966 earning three degrees: Bachelor of Science (1959),
Master of Science (1961) and a Ph.D. in Botany (1966). He also received a
graduate honors scholarship. After his studies Dr. Bhat worked as a research
assistant at Presidency College in Madras and received the Council of Scientific
and Industrial Research Senior Fellowship. From 1969 to 1987 he worked at the
Universidad de Oriente in Cumana, Venezuela, on the Science Faculty, in the
Biology Department at both undergraduate and graduate levels, and reached full
Professorship since 1980.
Prof. Bhat is the founder of Natural Health
Reeducation Movement which promotes a simple way of better living. In addition
to papers presented at national and international congresses he has also written
the following books prior to this publication:
para el estudio de las plantas con flores Ed.
UDORIENTE CUMANA 444 pp.
Baptizing and Classifying Device (ABCD). Phytomorphology 34 (1-4): 78-81
Tropical" : una manera sencilla de vivir mejor
Texto, Caracas, 174 pp.
Life: A Simple Way of Better Living
Ediciones Vivir Mejor. Printed by Codeword Process & Printer, Coelho Lanes,
Falnir Mangalore-575 001, Karnataka State, India.
Ed. 1994. Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor.
Ed. in French 1990
tracheary conduction in Plants
Lecture at VANASHREE, pp. 12. Assoc. Bot. Teach. Mang. Univ. MULKY, Aug 30, 1987
Heal: Illustrated by 8 cases of cancer
Paper presented by
Dr. Keshava Bhat at the First International Meeting of Experts of Developing
Countries on Medicinal Plants held at Arusha, Tanzania, in February (19-23),
Bases del Naturismo
Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
Basics of Natural Health Publisher:
Ediciones Vivir Mejor Caracas.
The Basics of Natural Health Hard
Cover Carlton Press, N. York.
Sentido de la vida: Desde el embarazo hasta la muerte
Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
El Cosmos atraves
del tunel espiralado infinito. una Interpretacion de los conceptos sobre nuestro
lugar en la boveda celeste
Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
Cosmos Through an infinite spiral tunnel
Ediciones Vivir Major, Caracas.
K. P. , Frank Bracho & Carmen de Freites
La vuelta al conuco
Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas, pp. 272
Bharat, that is India, in its National
Emblem carries a vedic phrase: "Satyameva Jayate" (Only truth
Truth is an abstract relative phrase.
Each person may find and verify his or her
own truth. Many a times illusions are evident but realities are not.
The word TRUTH and its meaning constitute
fundamental education given to children at home and school around the world.
This reflection remains in mind even when one grows up.
As a student of science, it was necessary to
read century old journals at the Madras University Library, with contradictory
arguments in the articles; to discuss which article or viewpoint was convincing;
to conduct experiments and obtain comparable results; to teach
undergraduate and graduate students of
Botany. How to identify the truth in all
these circumstances and to adhere to the
same? It hurts to know that
something is not true, but one is helpless.
That situation is no longer there.
For more than ten years I have retired from
classroom routine; no
more texts, no more syllabus, no more
experiments to obtain repeatable
results. No more promotion to await, no more
positions to lose, no more
progress report to submit, not even
employment. Time is ripe
and opportunity is given to spell out what
has been in my experience
all these years.
The ideas expressed in this book represent
my viewpoint after careful
analysis of available information and
logical reasoning. Discussions
and dialogues with friends, graduate
students and colleagues served to
clarify some aspects. National and
international events have stimulated
to prepare additional comments. The chapters
stress the need for
dedication, time, energy and resources in
these lines. There are some
repetitions of ideas at different chapters
due to three reasons:
Chapters were written at different time intervals
interrelation or continuity among ideas
drive home specific argument
Significant barriers in communication become
evident from the past
recorded history. Diverse authors round the
world with heterogeneous
information and background, individual
paradigms with limited effective
active sustained dedication, have
established concepts and package
systems. Partial observation with prejudiced
limited perception using
static parameters, have not even taken into
account dynamic nature
before establishing the present day
scientific model with all its
Journals and periodicals have repeatedly
published the findings and
conclusions to project to the scientific
and special groups have established their
journals for safeguarding
their own interests. Even the latest trend
in these publications to
incorporate dynamic models had to do so,
adding to the old static
concepts and frameworks. Speculations,
evolutionary frameworks and
computer models have mushroomed into modern
Diverse disciplines require critical
revision in their respective
fields. Readers are invited to maintain an
open mind, to reason out
without prejudice, so that the process may
be better understood for
the benefit of mankind.
Dr. K. Padmanabha Kekunnaya has executed the
typesetting and diagramming
of the book.
I take this opportunity to thank all
collaborators individually. The
cause is foremost and the means next
ANALYSIS OF MODERN SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE
has to be applied when we intend to thoroughly understand, determine or find out
the facts, relationship or processes involving the dynamic nature of the
constituents in any scientific matter or subject.
into account that dynamic Nature is a continuous process, it is important to
watch the details, keeping in mind the flow of events as they occur and trying
to understand this dynamic quality through the perception of its fluidity.
In order to be sure about a given subject, the process should be followed
in similar circumstances, being, nevertheless, aware that one and the same
phenomenon never repeats itself in dynamic Nature.
possible, know about the background of an author: his or her academic or
non-academic education and training, contemporary predominant ideas,
instrumental limitations, bibliography at hand at the time of writing the
article or essay, technical assistance received from collaborators, ideology or
religious inclinations if any, etc.
read the text and understand the contents. Identify any error regarding form.
Make pertinent corrections to set it right. Also identify errors regarding
contents such as conceptual, instrumental, human incoherence and contradictions.
Correct these theoretical aspects too. This procedure should enable us to note
down any new problems flashing out of the analysis which in turn serves as basis
for fresh investigation.
1. ERRONEOUS, OBSOLETE CONCEPTS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES IN MODERN SCIENCE.
Chemistry, being the backbone of biochemistry, has its origins in the practical alchemy school founded by Paracelsus in the 16th century.
from the 4th century B. C., had already proposed the word "atom" to
mean the smallest indivisible particle. However, the chief honor goes to Dalton,
who developed the atomic theory of matter and the Periodic Tables to express the
classification of chemical elements according to specific characteristics.
biochemical processes are generally explained through attractive and impressive
biochemical pathways at molecular level, using atomic models to explain the
ultra structures derived from complex images obtained using man made instruments
of high technology. It is claimed that the human body is made up of more than 80
trillions of cells; each cell has an estimated six billion reactions. Each
erythrocyte (RBC) contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules and each
molecule has ten thousand atoms.
in Physics, considered to be the basic science in modern days, the divisibility
of atom was demonstrated in the 1940s when the atom bomb, with a destructive
capacity equivalent to 15.000 TNT, was exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
electrons, protons, and neutrons replaced the atom as the smallest particles of
matter ever known. Nuclear energy included both fission and fusion products,
much of energy plus radioactive wastes. This information was promptly used
commercially to exploit the world with electronic devices.
Subsequently, quantum physics has abandoned all the previous information
in favour of devoting more time, energy and resources to understand the six
scientists dedicated to chemistry have not changed their traditional basic
concepts keeping in line in order to catch up with Quantum Physics in spite of
the fact that more than 50 years have elapsed since the advent of the conceptual
problem is that this chemistry serves as basis for organic chemistry,
biochemistry, etc., which in turn is the backbone of modern cell biology, cell
physiology, genetics and even the highly speculative phylogenetic evolution.
What it should have been done was the updating of all concepts in a coherent
way, with the addition of more scientific objectivity in order to maintain the
sequence which links up the mentioned branches of knowledge, thus facilitating
the understanding of the dynamic biological process as a totality and as a
2. QUALITATIVE SCIENCE
a dynamic process is fragmented into tiny bits, the wholeness is obscured by the
reductionist tendencies. Under a
close examination, most of the vocabulary used in modern science and scientific
literature has words and concepts generally conceived with limited meaning.
These should be reviewed and corrected when found erroneous, or abandoned if
they are obsolete. A flexible terminology is indispensable to describe a
dynamically vibrating quark or similar phenomena. When the observer is absorbed
or engaged with an idea, or is attentively dedicated to one aspect of sensory
perception, other sensory organs do not transmit messages adequately.
fly or sing day or night.
we are awake they are visible or heard.
we are asleep we do not see nor hear.
illustrate the point, let's take the case of biology. "Bios"
means "life" and "Logos" means "study". Thus
biology means "the study of life". Paradoxically, what is always
studied is... something dead. Dead bodies.
example is the concept of Species: originally, Linnaeus used the term in 1753 to
denote taxonomic unit in nomenclature, an epithet given by Linnaeus accompanies
a holotype -a dead sample and a latinized description based on the type specimen.
The dynamic nature of a live organism was thus reduced to one static moment in
space and time, on behalf of scientific precision!
modern authors have tried to incorporate a better definition for species, by
introducing terms such as: biological species, genes, ecospecies, among others,
but always associated with the same nomenclature.
Hooke (1664) observed a piece of cork under a magnifying glass, a simple
microscope and coined a term "cell" to name the individual pigeon-hole
like unit. This cell became the basic structural unit of any organism. However,
later studies have shown that this basic unit was nothing but remnants of cell
wall from the cortical region derived from the phellogen (cork cambium) with
typical deposits of wall material in specific patterns and metabolic wastes.
functional part of the unit was later identified as protoplasm with dynamic
structural and metabolic complexities. For all practical
purposes, today "cell" refers to a protoplasm with a membrane and in
plants a cellulosic cell wall gets deposited. Then the study of a cell became
specialised fields of studies cytology, cell biology or cell physiology. The
organism as a whole is totally obscured by fragmenting on one side and the basic
concept of cell became
on the other.
and phanerogamae are two terms coined by Eichler in 1875 and again reinstated in
1883 to describe groups of plants (taxa) which have a set of attributes common
to all their members. This artificial grouping serves to separate organisms on
differences and to bring together members on similarities, two basic functions
that purpose the terminology served. But the Greek word "Cryptos"
signifies "hidden" and "gamos" means "marriage" in
the sense that there is a hidden marriage among these plants. Whether plants
have marriage hidden or otherwise is a question worth consideration
because it is a term referable to human beings only or at most to animals. It is
a social contract and all other implications go with that word.
the hidden nature of gametic union, if that is meant, even that is not true
because gametes can be observed under compound microscope. Their union has been
the object in recent studies.
either counts the term becomes obsolete and complete misnomer.
the same way phanerogamae meaning open marriage, a term equally invalid. The
members of this taxon have flowers no doubt, but that is not the marriage. The
double fertilization and triple fusion are the characteristic features of this
group of plants, but this process is far from "marriage" and not
visible. Even the modern high-tech has not been able to observe the process in a
like these are abundant in descriptive sciences developed during the later part
of 19th century and 20th century.
While describing plants and their parts Linnaeus needed adequate words
for different structural entities and naturally had to borrow from animal
science. But those words mean one thing in animals but when brought to plant
science the meanings changed significantly. First of all those words used in
animals should not have been employed in plant science but other new terms
should have been developed or coined as the case may be. The confusion in the
mind of the user, whether a student of natural science or a professional such
should have been avoided.
for example sex in animals. Generally one animal is male or female but there are
animals with capacity to produce both male and female gametes in one and the
same organism as in the case of earth worm and the organism is considered to be
a hermaphrodite. So far so good. But when such terms are applied to plants and
plant sciences the confusion arises. Among algae such as
Oedogonium where male and
female gametes are formed on one and the same filament but on separate organs
the organism becomes hermaphrodite. Or among pteridophytes the gametophytic
thallus becomes hermaphrodite due to the presence of archegonia and antheridia
on the same prothallus. Likewise, a moss "flower" that appears on the
tip of a gametophyte containing archegonial
antheridial clusters, becomes male or female.
the case of flowering plants, in one and the same organism male, female and
hermaphrodite flowers are seen. In some plants like the date palm
(Phoenix) male and female
plants are separate organisms.
only more precise terminology could be established for better
the existing confusion could be avoided. Based on information available
the nature, structure and function of an organ or part there of a better concept
could easily be established in each case maintaining consistency and credibility
to avoid confusion for students of plant science in general.
such as androecium, gynoecium, embryo sac, placentum, ovule etc., are again
borrowed from animal science and freely used in plant science irrespective of
their difference and comparability. Placentum in an embryo sac is an organ both
developing in a female reproductive system of an animal after fertilsation. The
ovule is the female gamete also known as an egg. As regards to its chromosomal
contents, genetically this single cell (naked protoplasm) is haploid in animals.
applying these terms in plants with flowers the confusion attains new heights.
An ovule is a sporophytic tissue with thousands of cells generally diploid in
nature growing on a placentum directly within an ovary out of marginal meristems.
An embryo sac develops deep within this ovule and the female gamete is found
within this embryo sac. All these occur normally much before the fertilization
itself (Perhaps except in the case of orchids.)
The chronological appearance of these structures shows significant differences and the structures sometime do not get the correct connotation with terminology. This confusion is the result of borrowed technical terms from one context and meanings applicable to one set of organisms to be used for another set of phenomena in another set of organisms with totally different context.
for example the term trachea. In animals it is a canal
with specific function of conduction of air. Applied to plants trachea
are dead cells devoid of protoplasm and nonconducting in nature (see Chapter 6,
page 51 for better discussion on conduction in plants). Just
because the cell wall deposition all along the lateral walls of these cells seen
through a microscope anatomically looks like a wind pipe application of such
terms is also misleading. Based on such errors attributing a similar
function cannot be called scientific.
an organism like an animal division of labour requires recognition of separate
systems like digestive system, muscular system, conducting system, nervous
system and so on. But even then a coordination among all these systems is
essential for an efficient functioning of the organism as a whole. Fragmenting
an organism perhaps served to understand better that organism structurally or
functionally but a holistic view should have been indispensable for a complete
understanding of a dynamic process.
shortage of terms when borrowed from one field to another terms and concepts get
mixed up requiring a lot of efforts to set them right.
the dynamic nature of living organisms is considered as a process and studied as
a whole, genotype, phenotype, clonal studies, chimeras, chromosomal aberrations,
hybridization, cytibridization, or such phrases, become meaningless, far from
being scientific truth.
For this reason a critical examination is a must at this fag end of the
efforts to explain the moral and sentimental values in terms of mathematical or
statistical analytical methods should be invented to imbibe qualitative values
into mathematics or statistics. Feelings and sentiments should be incorporated
into quantitative expressions.
no attempt is made here to analyse and comment on common malpractice resorted to
by authors reported not only among developing economically backward countries
but also among economically advanced countries or even prestigious centres of
research. The malpractice include:
of "borrowed" or stolen ideas
of experimental set up
of cooked up statistical or other data
of manuscripts submitted for reviews
of works of others (students, colleagues etc.)
of some work in the same language or getting translated into some other language
The modern science has fragmented the whole
organism into minute units so as to get reduced to unidentifiable older systems,
organs tissues or cells or other known
units for a generation earlier.
by side the technological advancement in the modern world has expanded beyond
measures. The employment of such techniques as a whole or adapting them to the
individual needs has become a fashion for some super specialists but with an old
model at the base the Cartesian - baconian system which has lasted for the past
350 years predominating
scientific world. Speculation and theoretical jugglary has become another
prestigious field for many senior scientists who probably find no place in the
modern world for obvious reasons. About 80% of the world
population living in developing tropical countries has little
no access to the high tech due to economic social or political reasons.
reductionist tendencies search formats in high tech programs to solve problems
unheard of in such societies without reaching at
effective solutions. At most the possible suggestions to solve such problems require dependence on other latitude. The absence of reliable
data comparable with those available with technologically advanced countries has
not permitted to establish indicators in many countries.
it is a question of sophisticated instruments or high tech professionals to keep
abreast with the day to day renovation is frankly beyond the reach of many
people, even in economically capable countries.
current tendencies relegate the scientific contribution from such countries or
centres of research to third rate quality probably any editorial jury of
internationally recognised journals do not favour their findings for
publication. However, many countries are complaining about the serious brain
drain problem which has been ably exploited by economically or industrially
programs or easy to use guidelines may be useful in the beginning but if they
are based on erroneous or obsolete concepts the same system becomes a hurdle for
progress. In order to attain real progress, considering the present day pathetic
situation in which the science is poised, new ideas and arguments along with
methodological or conceptual changes should be incorporated. Diverse factors
contribute to the heterogeneity of modern science. Development of
concepts and methodology by heterogeneous authors round the world through
centuries has been the most important factor due to the cultural, traditional
and professional background. The chaos has been added by repeated fragmenting to
accommodate available data and the fast moving technology. No attempts have been
made to rectify the errors not even for a synthetic approach to understand the
whole gamut. Divergent trend establishes multiple objectives or lines of
investigation guided by one person during his or her professional dominance, say
some 25 years. If there has been an attempt to establish a school of followers
the line of research may continue for some more time or get altered partially or
totally to cater the need of the day. Obviously there are contradictory results
or conclusions depending on points of view. For example, a study of tomatoes may
indicate many nutrients useful to human being and hence recommend large scale
studies may indicate dangers therefrom due to the presence of organic lead
(causing saturnism) oxalic acid (causing renal or vesicular lithiasis) or uric
acid (producing painful needles in joints) and obviously a health hazard.
Another example may be the soy bean. Many nutritional
items present in soya beans serve to feed the millions of hungry people around
the world. But the presence of factors like trypsin inhibitory factor or
obstruction of minerals (micronutrients) from absorption should alert the user
as to the possible risk to pancreatic failure leading to diabetes or retardation
of endocrine system leading to sterility to keep away from such substances,
including all derivatives therefrom. Using one and the same instrument
two scientists may develop diverse lines of study. Telescope and microscope are
good examples of optical instruments used in explorations into cosmos on the one
hand and deeper and deeper into the structural complexity of organisms on the
should establish a single goal -human well-being- and utilize every effort to
achieve this goal. At the same time, both quantitative and qualitative aspects
should be considered in the dynamic process that is nature.
(See also Chapter 4)
OF CONVENTIONAL SCIENTIFIC METHOD
conventional scientific method -Cartesian mechanical one- usually adopts the
following steps in order to determine the "scientific truth":
I. Observation of Nature.
order to attain a better perception of the happenings in Nature the human being
normally should make use of all the five sense organs (auditive, tactile,
vision, gustative and olfative). Nevertheless, in order to measure isolated
happenings the conventional scientific method employs only audition, tactile and
vision. Thus, the observation is incomplete. The concepts used even in these
parameters are usually obsolete, some are erroneous and many are prejudiced.
observations are heterogeneous and realized at specific moments without taking
into account the process as a whole. Other factors are not even considered (such
as climatic or genetic or structural or functional variables). The absence of
parameters to measure scientifically the taste and smell becomes evident at this
II. Problem presentation.
academic formation of the investigator and the available limited information are
shortcomings or determining factors in problem presentation. The scope depends
on the researcher and his point of view. Super specialization tends to ignore
the process as a whole.
III. Arriving at a hypothesis.
subjectivity of the researcher confines the hypothesis to a prejudice which
expects to arrive at a specific result. The favourable results are then sought
for, by all means.
step is the most vulnerable one in the conventional scientific method. First
of all the experiment should be repeatable. When the inherent dynamism of Nature
is considered it is impossible to get two identical moments in relative space
and time and thus moments are not repeatable. Experimental errors include human
errors, instrumental errors and the variability of the external and internal
conditions of experimental material.
far as living organisms are considered there are no two individuals alike; one
and the same organism is never identical at two different instances, the true
dynamism of Nature.
is so complex and ample that so far it is humanly impossible to conduct a
repeatable experiment. It is not possible to compare an
"experimental" organism with a "control" one since the two
are genetically, biologically different. The experimentation does not consider
the individual qualities or organisms for lack of parameters to do so.
V. Theoretical conclusions.
conclusions based on the four preceding steps are not reliable due to human and
Heterogeneous conclusions are not precise and hence are not comparable.
of a new scientific method.
order to re-invindicate a true science the following correct scientific method
is proposed based on the natural order and way of life (supreme science).
1. Identify the purpose of research (always within humanistic ethic and respect
to the natural order).
2. Establish a simple and practical efficient and creative methodology
3. Unbiased observation with all the senses with due respect to Natural laws and
human integrity with a view to obtain a complete information in a systematic and
4. Process data with maximum possible objectivity.
5. Arrive at obvious conclusions and comprehend a natural process leading to the
well being of humankind in harmony with nature.
from Spanish from `El Sentido de la Vida p. 70-71 (1994)
1. THE MYTH OF MICROBIOLOGY
All that is heard of as "infection" or "virosis" need not be taken seriously, because of conceptual errors in vogue. All that is said about Microbiology is inadequate. The following example will help to illustrate the point.
in 1865, isolated one microbe from the human excrement and named it
Escherichia coli . This E.
coli is one of the putrefactive
microbes used extensively in laboratory experiments on microbiology.
has been estimated that one gram of human excrement should have about 10 to 100
thousand million microbes, and more than 400 species among them have been
1.500 species of microbes are known so far taxonomically, of which about 150
alone are pathogens. The other 1.350 are useful microbes in one way or another.
bacteria are found in symbiosis with the root nodules of leguminous
plants (beans, peas, lentils etc.) in order to fix nitrogen from the
environment. Bacterial flora present in close contact with the protoplasm has a
specific function to perform:
of the cell when it is no longer alive. The decomposition of organic matter in
nature is entirely due to microbial activity. So far so good. Problems crop up
is known from literature that
E. coli can
divide progressively under favourable conditions. The duplication may occur at
intervals of 10 to 24 minutes. What are the implications? The bacterial genome
is formed of 3.000 genes. Every 100 generations one mutation may occur. This
means that a total of 300.000 generations of
E. coli should be sufficient
to change the original bacterial cell up to 100%. At the rate of one duplication
every 20 minutes, within 11 years 5 months and 5 days, the original bacterial
cell should have undergone 100% change, becoming something else altogether,
different from the original organism and thus, should no longer be called
E. coli .
calculation shows that what was identified as
E. coli by Schleiden in 1865, was fully transformed by 1876 and every
12th year became a new organism, of which there has not been information
available. Thus, "the microbial culture"
maintained throughout has no meaning at all. This story holds good for other
bacteria as well.
the other hand, if every cell contains microorganisms
within their protoplasms, even in healthy normal conditions, no question of
"infection" comes into play at all. Then, what is the use of
antibiotics? Where is the reliability of Microbiology? When all these arguments
are taken into account antibiotics do not have the usefulness attributed to
them; they are not effective either. Even worse, antibiotics may have released
toxic residues like endotoxins with long-standing side effects on the human
organism. These effects may extend to the quality of sperms or ovules,
responsible for the procreation.
CONCEPTUAL CHANGE TO EXPLAIN "VIRAL DISEASES"
is attributed to `virus' particles when no other known organisms are found
associated with the disease. In other words, when
responsibility for certain diseases cannot be pinpointed, assuming that the
unknown culprit is always attacking the patient from outside, it is said to be `virosis',
as if viral particles can occur from nowhere. How come science has so utterly
failed so far to control the situation?
it just because the logical reasoning to identify the problem is missing?
Disease as such cannot exist. It is just a state of an organism. Only sick
organisms exist and when dealing with persons, they are called `patients.' When
this simple fact is considered, responsibility should be placed upon the
shoulders of that person on the first place and least on the viral particles.
symptoms alone are treated, the cause of the disease remains for ever. When
this cause is properly treated and rectified, the patient recovers organs,
tissues and cells. Again, the reductionist tendency to divide the
organism into systems serves only to facilitate partial understanding. However,
for a complete picture before treating the whole organism, an ample synthesis,
interrelation of all the organs, tissues and systems, their structures and
function should always be understood as a dynamic process.
does AIDS happen?
living cell of an organism has five components, volume, nucleus, metabolism,
cytoplasm and mass. When these components function in a harmonious way, there is
a reliable and efficient cell. But in every cell there are microbes in close
association with the cytoplasm. These microbes remain latent until an
opportunity arises to decompose the cell contents in order to obtain energy for
their nutrition. Every structurally or functionally defective cell has to be
removed from the living organism and replaced with another structurally or
functionally sound cell. This removal is possible through microbial activity in
due course only. The vitality of the cell, then, determines whether the microbe
should stay passive or active.
cell vitality may be decreased due to some internal or external factors: lack of
absorption, distribution or use of nutrients; hereditary factors in turn may
hinder the cell's capacity to eliminate toxic substances, properly or at all,
causing their accumulation; also, by organic degradation or wear and tear. Once
the cell vitality decreases, the bacteria present within decompose the
protoplasm. This decomposition produces an acidic medium through putrefaction. The putrefactive process may occur by
consumption of animal protein such as meat, fish, chicken,eggs, cheese, etc.
where the resulting acidic medium destroys and eliminates the normal fermentive
intestinal flora at the ascending colon.
is pertinent to note here that the large intestine of carnivorous animals is a
short, smooth tubular structure, used to normally shelter putrefactive bacteria.
Very different is a corresponding much longer colon of any herbivorous animal,
characterized by inner and outer undulations and finger-like projections all
over its inner wall, normally with fermentative flora in it. The
human colon is as highly ondulated as the one of any other herbivorous animals.
The fermentative flora is replaced by putrefactive flora in tune with the
consumption of animal proteins. Since the manifestation of microbes in the cell
is a natural scavenging process, the so called "infection" will have
to be considered as an internal process and not as an invasion from afar, this
natural process being consistent with the low vitality of the disintegrating
the other hand, within the bacterial cell there are always present "viral
particles" also known as bacteriophages. These viral particles remain
latent until the host microbe itself becomes weaker. Then they become active in
order to disintegrate the bacterial cell contents. This
is nothing else than the same scavenging process in Nature. In this sequence the
low vitality of the cell or organism is expressed at a first stage through the
proliferation of bacteria; subsequently the manifestation of viral particles
announces the decay of bacteria.
this point, a comparison may be made to explain the process in a simpler way.
Normally, a hen eats up a cockroach which has previously eaten up worms.
"The big fish eats up the small one", we have been told.
Except when the big fish is
careless. Then it gets sick and dies; its dead body being eaten up by the
smaller fish. In other words, we end up with the hen being eaten by the
cockroach, and this, in turn, devoured by the worms. (The opposite to
conventional wisdom occurs). It is exactly what happens
in the case of AIDS or of any other so-called viral diseases.
as the high microbial activity in cell degradation is known as
"infection", the viral activity is known as "virosis".
common cold, for example starts as a sour throat (which is nothing else than an
acidification of the medium, as explained before). The mucous membrane gets
disintegrated when the bacteriophage or viral particles consume the bacterial
protoplasm and the running nose is the symptom of "virosis". In
modern society it seems that viruses have become favorite culprits to pass on
people's own responsibility for disease to somebody else. Viruses are
responsible of all problems. Either viruses or government. (To comment on
government's responsibility is not our aim at this point, though). Now, that
statement, of course, may also be a convenient excuse to hide ignorance or wrong
concepts and methodology. It should be made quite clear
that the pathogenicity of the viral particles or bacteria does not come from
nowhere or from outside but only from WITHIN.
The weakness of the individual organism is the key and not "the infection from outside". Once we are clear on this, it becomes easy to explain the rest. When all the living organisms get fully degenerated, the substrate is then ideal for fungal growth, commonly known as candidiasis or mycosis, a final state of degeneration. This explains the phenomenon of AIDS from the point of view of Naturalism (the laws of the natural lifestyle).
ENGINEERING Gate to Heaven or Hell?
Biology means the science of life. One of the so many fields of studies undertaken by man to understand Nature. One of the early fields of studies wherein the plants and animals living in the biosphere are the objects of investigation. The biodiversity, structural complexity, functional patterns, economic benefits, practical uses, possible imitation of models for other fields of application of natural resources, from architecture to embroidery, are all fascinating aspects that have drawn the attention of man since time immemorial. By successive fragmenting, several new branches of science have come to exist through centuries. The twentieth century has gone far ahead and, in an interval of decades, industrial advancement has helped to expand the scope to unbelievable reaches. One simply remains wonder struck with the ability of man to exploit these developments. Many a times the very science or scientific progress is sufficient credibility to convert the fame into commercial investments leading to economic gain. Every nation pours in large sums of public funds into this kind of research to satisfy the demands of the scientific community. So far so good.
now that humanity is fast approaching the tail-end of the twentieth century, it
is time to take stock of what has been left after so many decades of unchecked
cult to technological and scientific progress. Every field of science of late
has become a bottomless hole which may swallow anything at any time.
like so much of modern scientific thought, has become elusive and incoherent.
Basic conceptual errors, the heterogeneity of biologists with generation gaps in
the practice of Biology, the application of recent technological devices at
different depth, etc. may be the cause for this situation. If
only one can pause for a while and think retrospectively, the formidable
scientific empire erected through centuries is crumbling down. All that
is required right now is to think with an open unbiased mind; think logically
and reasonably. After all, man is endowed with this attribute and should discern
to justify his very distinction as a human being. This is high time to do so if
at all we want the survival and real progress of biological sciences. Therefore,
here is a call to humanity to pause, think and proceed to the next century. Let
us not be the last living creatures that ever existed on this planet because of
our senseless craze for industrial and scientific advancement as conceived
can easily prepare a list of so many promising or startling scientific
discoveries or technological applications in the past that have gone wrong. A
few examples may clarify this point. The discovery of "DDT" as an
insecticide gained a Nobel Prize for the discovering scientist in 1948; but by
the year 1967 its use was banned in the USA after public outcry due to the
damage caused to living creatures including humans. The use of Thalidomide in
the 60's by pregnant women to counteract nausea, produced in the end deformation
of the fetus; exachlorophene, used in toothpaste, was withdrawn when found to be
cancerigen; diethylestilbestrol, a female hormone used in meat production, has
been banned from the market for its lethal effect on human health;
chlorofluorocarbons, initially presented as a great coolant in refrigeration
have been responsible for the ozone layer depletion.
industrial and technological fields, such as nuclear plants, with its threats to
world safety converted into nightmarish reality with
notorious accidents like that of the Three Mile Island or the Chernobyl one.
The petrochemical industry with its uncontrollable pollution capability, able to
generate up calamities such as the Bhopal tragedy; and big dams with their
equally unmanaged ecological impact and imminent vulnerability, have all come
into severe questioning - after having been hailed at the beginning as
"wonder technologies at the service of mankind". In
fact, some of these products and technologies banned or subjected to restricted
use in the industrial world are being exported whole-sale to the South in a
scandalously irresponsible double standard. As
we dig, more and more, evidence is pouring in about the death or damage caused
by modern science and technology.
What could be expected, for example, of further research into the effects on
human health (or the living world in general) of the nearly 72,000 chemical
substances used in food technology in the form of additives, artificial
colouring and flavoring agents, antioxidants, preservatives, etc. present in the
modern denatured "food products" consumed by millions around the
this kind of products may be possibly considered fit for human consumption? While
the world population is alarmed about AIDS and the accelerated biological
deterioration of living beings, including mankind, and continue to search for
cure for all kinds of degenerative diseases through costly artificial
pharmaceutical products, we turn a blind eye on the responsibility of modern
food habits in the breakdown of human health and immunity.
was the mistake? Better still we should ask if at all man was on a correct path
of coherent inquiry into Nature. How can we know? It is too simple; we go back
to basics, restart the entire process. Progress is indeed possible, of course,
with corresponding corrective measures.
means life; and logos,
study. We have never studied life. Life has always been enigmatic and
continues to be so. We pretend to study the manifestations of living beings when
they are dead, or in order to study them, they are killed and we call that:
Partial information obtained through incorrect methods is used to suppose or
assume in order to speculate with theories. Based on such theories we proceed
with further research and construct "castles in the air"; create new
"fields of knowledge" and, of course, new technologies to convert the
same into economic benefits. Until damages get beyond control, exploitation
persists. Let us explain. The scientific method proposed
in 17th century by Francis Bacon is still the basic tool for use in the modern
world. This means that in order to be "scientific", it is obligatory
to follow systematically the five steps of this method:
of a problem for research.
of a hypothesis to clarify the scope of the chosen problem.
to obtain proof of that hypothesis.
arrive at universally acceptable conclusions.
the outset all looks fine; but at every step we have gone wrong. Still we stick
to this dogmatic method not to be "unscientific", especially in the
eyes of the orthodox scientific community at large.
of Nature requires great
care because of its complexity. For scientists Nature seemed to be static and
all theories were
on that basis. Nowadays, when the dynamism of Nature is fully
static scientific concepts and theories still rule.
Human perception conventionally cuts across five senses: audition, touch vision,
taste and smell. However, in practice, scientifically measurable parameters are
available only for three senses (audition, touch and vision) and that, too, with
limitations. For taste and smell we are yet to fix up standard parameters. Our
capacity of sensory perception is limited whereas the manifestations of dynamism
in Nature are unlimited.
in Nature is so important that natural processes can not and should not be
considered as isolated events in space and time. They
should be considered as live processes continually expanding in
multi-dimensions. Each component spiral called a living organism is also a
living process but limited in space and time. Each and every living organism has
its own identity not comparable with any other organism in the multiple
dimensions. The dynamism of organisms and the dynamism of Nature should be
understood as a related process, beyond any partial observation or event. A
biased observation in the absence of a comprehensive outlook leads to identification
of problems on erroneous
footing or assumptions. The situation worsens by assuming that two living
organisms are alike or even two moments are alike in one and the same organism.
Such erroneous starting leads to the proposal of hypo-thesis subject to the scope and limitations of the scientist. The proposed hypothesis is nothing but prejudice, what the scientist wishes to prove.
are designed accordingly to obtain results favourable to
the scientist's hypothesis. By chance, when the
results do not agree with the hypothesis many a times the methodology is changed
in order to obtain the expected result.
in the strict sense, should involve as many aspects as possible. However, only
few controllable parameters alone are taken into account for the convenience of
the researcher. When two living organisms are not alike or when two events are
not comparable, even in one and the same living organism, experimental proof is
nothing but a tabulation of "results" for purpose of
self-justification of the hypothesis. Then the human errors or instrumental
errors are generally ignored. The theoretical conclusions arrived at with such a
method are fundamentally flawed. This has been the story for any science in
general, and biological sciences in particular. In order to justify the
research, the author cites other scientific works and a carefully worded
methodology in technical terms.
of the shaky foundation on this defective theories in modern biology, it goes
without saying that any other theories which have been based on these, in turn
modern biology is supported by molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics,
nucleic acids, biophysics, immunobiology, protein chemistry and similar high
technology fields. These special scientific insights also require special
scientific instrumentation like the one of the electron microscopy,
spectroscopy, chromatography, ultra centrifuge, computerization etc. New models
of every item appear every year with "improvements". But
for all these special fields of biology a deep study of chemistry is
indispensable in order to explain the molecular and atomic structural patterns
of living organisms (which again, are meant to be understood through the
detailed study of fragmented dead bodies "fixed" adequately). Chemistry
as a science depends exclusively on physics for scientific support. Molecules
and atoms were considered to be the fundamental structural particles once upon a
physics, however, on a sincere approach, nothing is clear yet.
The smallest known particles are no longer molecules and atoms. Physical
scientists abandoned the atomic theory far back in 1940's. The electronic age
has entered history, making room for quantum physics, although very little is
known about quantum particles themselves. Today even a proposition as
revisionist as the "chaos theory" has found an important place in
atomic bombs were publicly used at the end of II World War to demonstrate the
destructive capacity of nuclear power. In spite of this, science and technology
have joined hands with politicians and big businesses to make
"progress" in nuclear technology around the world. The
nuclear waste accumulated in the world in the last fifty years is a distinct
proof of the consequences of this kind of progress, destined to remain with us
for another estimated 250,000 years! The economic impacts or gains on account of
nuclear energy have no limits, the awesome damage done to the biosphere with
such dangerously hazardous toxic wastes is beyond words.
made clear that the atom is not the smallest structural unit, any science that
has been based on this wrong premise, including chemistry, loses its validity. Chemists
still cling on the supposed chemical reaction between atoms or molecules;
biochemistry builds on the same to explain, through complex formulae live
processes using dead samples.
cannot be overemphasized that what is learnt from dead bodies or their parts do
not reveal the live processes. Life is neither defined scientifically nor proved
experimentally, but it continues to exist. Again, a
simple chemical reaction, however balanced, is not going to explain the action,
reaction, interaction and final effects of live processes and their expression.
To attribute a
simplistic-mechanistic label to a complex-dynamic biological process can not be
true knowledge or science.
in modern days big business has taken up these high
technology-based industries to harness new
frontiers for commodities sale. An attractive term coined for such
exploitation is "Genetic Engineering" or "biotechnology".
>From the above discussion on science in general and biological sciences in
particular, the curtain is raised and the clear picture of the actual situation
is apparent. Nevertheless, the speculations and
assumptions which foster conventional science are conveniently maintained at low
profile by those canvassing for genetic engineering, and so its possible side
effects. To sell the goods at high price every possible kind of
propaganda tactics is conceived and presented with sugar and chocolate coating.
us once again think, for heaven's sake!
engineering is based on genetics. Modern genetics supposes
that all experimental material consists of a set number of genes or gene pools. It
that nucleic acid with specific structural patterns produce all kinds of
organelles and organs. What about the structural
dynamism of organisms as a whole? Living organisms undergo a series of
biochemical changes (including construction, maintenance and deterioration) as a
continuous process at all times. Every living cell is supposed
to contain several thousands of complex chemical compounds whose structure,
function, etc., still remain to be understood. They play their role through
actions, reactions, biological interactions, leading to final expressions such
as the metabolic processes. All this living process
occurs simultaneously in every living protoplasm.
or gene pools do not exist independently. If the starting point were inorganic
components, the story could be different. In
a living organism, gene or gene pools constitute a very important ingredient but
there are so many other components as well. Genes are far from being the whole
all these explanations, it becomes clear that experiments carried out in a few
strains of microorganisms like Escherichia
coli or Neurospora
may be convenient to be used in laboratories for commercial exploitation,
but quite insufficient for application to other more complex organisms,
including man. This is just what is being criticized by
us: the misleading of innocent public. Biotechnology used in this context in the
form of genetic engineering has yet another problem: it depends on the wishes of
very pretense of genetic engineering to fight diseases affecting humans, is a
flaw. It is not a matter of "waging
war" against pathogens or diseases. There is already overwhelming
evidence that the key to ill health lies on poor living and food habits. Instead
of fixing responsibilities on human beings, on
the bases of pure speculation, genes, gene pools or pathogens are held
responsible for every kind of disease. Few decades ago, the chief
responsible organisms were bacteria, virus or fungal "infections";
now, it is also the fault of genes. Instead of preventing health hazards,
genetic engineering is leading us into a most dangerous arena by creating
monsters. One should ôpreventö
any illness early by regulating his or her food and living habits so that the
organism does not deteriorate its vitality, which is the main cause of disease.
This preventive health education has not been officially fostered. (for
If genetic engineering pretends to improve agricultural output, still the starting point is wrong. Without understanding life itself it is meant to manipulate its genes. Plants and animals which constitute the components of the biosphere, are least understood so far. In spite of this, a number of plants has been introduced from traditional cultivation across the ages; this selection and crop improvements attained through centuries by diverse indigenous people around the world is far too ample and complex to be maintained by simple profit-driven genetic engineering projects.
is true, genetic engineering has produced certain strains of microorganisms and
of plant materials. Some attempts on the cloning of animal cells have been
successful. But the ulterior driving interest has rested on the patenting of
such biological creations for commercial exploitation, rather than contributing
to the improvement of humankind. The chemicals used in such technology have
induced dependence of the people who have relied on them. Such chemicals have
destroyed partially or totally the ecosystems where they have been employed in
the field. The staggering evidence of this is the so called "green
revolution" of recent decades and its disastrous effects.
the object of genetic engineering is just to remain grounded in laboratory
activities using high technology to produce more and more at a faster and faster
pace beware of imminent dangers. The effects of mutagens on laboratory
technicians or exposure to harmful laboratory chemicals are points to ponder.
The obsession of modern agriculture based on high technology may lead to a
future generation with no information whatsoever regarding the proper methods of
traditional cultivation, locally evolved through experience of many centuries.
The imposition of ever hanging and
alien technologies on places and peoples quite different from the
socio-geographic milieu where such technologies have originated, or the blind
imitation of methods and strategies, are all dangerous. In
the end, one comes to the logical conclusion that newly produced laboratory
stuff at the expense of traditional field work is useless.
Normally male and female gametes unite biologically to produce an embryo. But scientists have been successful to produce "test tube" baby by experiments wherein the gametes obtained from suitable male and female are brought together in a Petri dish under microscope. The fusion product(s) when placed in the uterus of a woman develops into an embryo. Of late by manipulation, haploid nucleus is removed from the egg (female gamete) replaced by a somatic nucleus obtained from cells in the mammary glands. This fusion product or grafted product when placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother developed into an embryo and has caused widespread sensation in the press as a "clone". Now even governments are discussing the ethical problems with reference to cloning human beings.
this product maintains qualitative characters and whether it is fertile are
aspects so far ignored. Many questions remain unanswered at this stage including
the high cost of this high tech process.
one side the population division of the UN Economic and Social Department wants
a reduction in global
population. Many organisations around the world promote such measures.
Much of the budgetary allocations in most of the countries indicate massive
efforts to control population.
the other side, much research, resources go to develop high tech
test tube babies, clones or whatever name it gets to obtain more population.
The real problem has not even been sensed yet. As one sees, the food habits and living habits all over the world has caused genetic degeneration to such an extent that the human race is on the verge of extinction. The over population of consumer society is the real problem.
of the environment is the external factor influencing the sterility
among human beings whereas the food and living habits constitute the
internal factor besides genetic ones.
is claimed that the `genetic engineering' is resorted to feed the hungry
millions. But in the name of food technology so many nutrients are removed
during the industrial processing of raw materials. Two examples should be
is the staple food of majority of human beings. FAO has plans to increase
the production by 3% to feed
the hungry mouths. During milling and polishing 16% of
the production is removed, precisely that portion contains all the precious
nutrients like proteins, minerals and vitamins in order to get `marketable' rice
that can have longer shelf life. Then these are practical solutions to
rescue the children with mineral deficiency, protein deficiency and vitamin
deficiency. If only the people are educated to consume unpolished rice all the
problems are solved in one stroke. But who will bell the cat?
is sugar. Sugar cane grows abundant in the tropical belt
around the world. The cane juice is rich in minerals, vitamins and proteins
besides sucrose. But during the process of refining sugar to 99.99%
purity all the other nutrients are removed as "waste". By using a
concentrated cane juice all the problems could be solved. This
process is self evident why the genetic engineering experiments are not
justified to feed the hungry. If only there is a change in the human values all
problems could be reasonably solved.
On the other hand, the transgenic experiments utilized in agricultural crops has resulted in disasters in Europe. The rape seed variety with incorporated poison herbicide has shared this property with the weed adjacent to the crop. This renders the crop and weed useless. Potatoes,
tomatoes, and others have shown failures in chain. The potato crop with
substances to repel bugs not only affected the bugs but also destroys lady bird
insect supposedly friend of the farmer. Mischief thou art afoot take thy path!
said Antony at Ceasar's funeral speech! Human errors combined with technical
errors may destroy nature.
the organs transplant or even blood transfusion it should be fair to mention its
short sightedness and incoherence. This is due to the individuality regarding
immune system and protein fingerprint which normally should reject intrusion of
considering the food body that serves for organ
transplant or blood transfusion other bodies like breathing body, mental body,
intuitive body and the bliss body of the donor and recipient, their
compatibility and other details are not even taken into account so far in
concepts and methodology are on the wrong footing no results worth the stuff may
be expected. Assumptions or suppositions should be subjected to test at every
stage before proceeding to the next step on the same line. But in the modern
scientific literature these are not seen.
for example, the recent cloning attempts on human embryos.
The technology involved is very costly. It is obvious that by common
sense people around the world know how to procreate. But still "laboratory
babies" are in great demand, especially in the industrial world. In the
tropics, great efforts are made to control population by mass sterilization
methods, whereas in the industrial world, where the human fertility is severely
affected, this "baby boom" has become a convenient commercial venture.
Technology has been developed to "help" those couples who are unable
to procreate by themselves due to various barriers. The available statistics
indicates that in France alone there are more than 20,000 "units" (pro
embryos) kept in special containers at minus 180ž C. to be recovered or
destroyed to suit buyers wishes within the next five years. Each
baby's market price tag is about forty six thousands US dollars. A big business
The ovule from a woman and sperms from a man are collected, and fertilization is realized in the laboratory. The product, the zygote, is given adequate facilities to grow normally by cell division: one into two, two into four and four into eight cells. Then these cells are separated at an "appropriate" stage and one portion is implanted in the uterus of a would be mother, whereas the other portion is kept in refrigeration for future use. It is presumed that all the derived cells are identical in their genetic constitutions and hence they are supposed to be replicas or clones, grossly overlooking that two cells, even from the same origin, are never alike due to the inherent dynamism of the division process. By way of illustration, all the cells of the body, which come from an initial single cell, evolve into structurally and functionally diverse cells, tissues and organs.
from this, there is no guarantee that a test tube baby thus produced will
develop into a normal child or an adult under normal conditions of upbringing. One
can "order" the colour of the eyes, of the skin, of the hair, maybe
the shape of the nose or even the size of the nails. But is that all there is to
it? The influence of the food and living habits of the pregnant woman on
the health of the progeny is again not taken into account. Mental conditions,
emotions and other human sensitive features like love, affection, tenderness or
grace are not determined at the laboratory table. What
about the very act of intimate relationship between a woman and her beloved man?
Is the laboratory going to arrange such experience in a test tube or Petri dish?
What about the biochemical, physiological, mental, bioenergetic and other
implications of a woman who has been subjected to such artificial implantation
of a "known" (to whom?) human pro embryo?
parenthood needs more than the implantation of cells. The hereditary qualities
of ovules and sperms selected for test tube fertilization may contain hidden
genes or gene pools. Their expression is unpredictable.
The metabolic, cytoplasmic and nuclear alteration or changes that may
occur during the laboratory manipulations have been ignored, so far. The
consequences of such influences (iatrogenesis) should be taken into serious
short, we can safely say that an in depth revision of the whole concept of
biotechnology or, at least, genetic engineering, especially in relation to human
beings, is urgently required, before jumping into hasty conclusions leading to
lucrative commercial exploitation, complex legal battles or religious
of draining one's resources, energy and time in this kind of genetic
engineering, if only we could give serious attention to a natural, holistic
manner of simple living, preventive
education would become the essential key to human well-being. The
answer to today's human problems is not for us to delink ourselves further from
the laws of Nature. Instead of continuing to exploit Nature in the reckless and
arrogant way man has done for decades, what is needed is to avail ourselves of
the generous natural resources within our reach in this planet. More so in the
tropics, where these resources are abundant, with climatic, edaphic and biotic
factors most favourable. On a just and equitable basis these resources may also
be available for global use. This is why the tropics
should be considered as the first
If only we were to use proper clean technology without toxic residues, to tap these resources, humanity would have a better future and avert the genetic collapse of the human species.
By way of example, for the past 25 years in the tropical areas, I have been associated to a grass-root natural health movement, which by its balanced use of medicinal plants, food and healthy life- style habits, has helped hundreds of thousands of people to substantially improve their health -including cure from ailments considered incurable by conventional medicine, in a very cost- effective way.
reflections presented in this article are meant to contribute to a wider
discussion about the grave perils and flaws of genetic
engineering. Man cannot elevate himself above natural laws, but he has to
remain subject to them. Present
humanity's great misfortunes stem from its arrogant de-linking from natural
laws. Contrary to what genetic engineering suggests, the solution lies in
reversing the existing situation to live again in harmony with Nature, for real
development of living beings in general and the human species in particular.
Paper presented at Third World Network Workshop on Redefining Science and
Biotechnology. PENANG, MALAYASIA 1994.
AUTOMATICALLY BAPTIZING AND CLASSIFYING DEVICE (ABCD)
Science demands clarity and precision. The technological advancements
should be properly exploited for easy manipulation of the basic
compilation-retrieval method used in descriptive botany. It is proposed that the
homogeneous phytographic information be
into numbers representing a specific code suitable for electronic documentation,
with corresponding phonetic equivalents serving for oral communication. While
doing so, each deme would receive individual code, its name (naming) with full
significance, and would be grouped automatically with related units
(classifying). The need, at a global level, for revisions of phytografic
concepts and terminology as well as uniform adoption of this system for far
reaching results is stressed.
identification and precise nomenclature are of fundamental importance for any
process of systematic data accumulation and retrieval
well as for effective communication. This becomes all the more emphatic when one
considers Biological Sciences in general and Botany in particular. Depending on
the aim of the identifier, one or few characters and their states are
sufficient, no doubt, to identify a given object: but, for scientific purposes,
information available on as many characters and their states as possible, gives
a better picture of the entire complex. For practical purposes, once identified,
taxon should receive its name.
botany, the Binomial System of Nomenclature (thanks to the ingenious
of Linnaeus, of XVIII century) provides an instrument to
in two epithets the sum of phenotypical (at that time this term was not in use)
expression based mainly on the holotype. The extent and volume of data
accumulated following Linnaeus technique becomes evident
we consider the number of Herbaria known (see Index Herbariorum) as well as
those unknown together with the descriptive literature, classical and modern, on
the subject. The energetic and enthusiastic explorers of the 18th and 19th
centuries, combined with those of the 20th century, have contributed enormously
in time and space, to know more about the tropical floras. These descriptive
have several obvious setbacks such as: Diversity of criteria regarding the
taxonomic categories; heterogeneity of authors and their concepts; incorporation
of new data within the obsolete framework; the duplicity of taxa creation with
the inevitable problem of synonymy, homonym and priority questions, not to speak
of the time, energy and expenditure
in the critical reinvestigations; the human nature to
perpetuate his/her name in the taxonomic literature; loss of original herbarium collections, field notes, manuscripts, etc.; rediscovery of old names of the taxa, bound by the rules on priority, retro-activeness and
of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
never ending exploration, extensive and intensive, is still
into the hitherto inaccessible regions of the tropics, thanks mainly to the
modern transportation, communication media and computer
But the basic problem has expanded beyond measure, into chaotic levels.
the other hand, after discussing the empirical situations that existed with
reference to the botanical nomenclature, some sort of agreement was reached in
the form of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature for use among the
botanists of the world. Unfortunately, the constant modifications, often quite
significant, make it
to maintain uniform criteria for ever. At one time the botanist may be quite
right in applying the Code but due to later changes in some of its Articles, the
process is likely to be wrong.
for the amendment of the Articles, Recommendations,
etc., for conservation or rejection of names are still on the increase (compare
the number of proposals in the Nomenclature Sessions at
1975 as well as at Sydney, 1981). Furthermore, there is no effective means of
supervision to see that the contents of the Code are strictly enforced. The
retroactiveness of the Code makes it all the more
due to uncovering of old literature hitherto unknown or the very
in the Code itself. The heterogeneity among the users and the
completes the rest.
point for concern is the presence or usage of vague, less precise or even
inapplicable terms which elude exact definition so much required in scientific
language. The basic terminology employed by the European
authors of the past, especially during the 18th and 19th centuries, is the
latinized form of words and expressions drawn from diverse sources and contexts,
perhaps convenient to some extent at that time (Stearn 1966). With the
advancement of knowledge, both in space and time, existing terminology tends to
be helpless if not inadequate, especially when the precise expression is the
essence of scientific thought, for phytographic purposes at a global level.
incorporation of current notions on phytogenetics, especially the
phenotype-genotype concept, ecophysiology, phytochemistry,
and related camps of inquiry into the organism as a biological entity, makes the
situation for the classical taxonomists all the more
if not impossible. The phylogenetic guise, based mainly on fragmentary evidence,
assumptions and presumptions, concocted according to the individual whims and
fancies, many a time even at the formative stage of the student of botany, may
hide the scene for a while. This
when discovered, might be a blow beyond salvation. The contempt of the budding
botanists, if not frustration, is sufficient to repel him from botany forever.
The eternal confrontation between the alpha and omega taxonomists summarized in
terms of taxonomic species concept and biological species concept, respectively,
manifests the hollowness of both classical and phylogenetic views.
overcome these drawbacks in taxonomy, nomenclature, classification and
documentation, an attempt is made to develop a device that would automatically
baptize and classify given objects, and in doing so, serve to accumulate the
available information incomplete in some
aspects, would also be indicated for future investigation.
SIMILARITY IN THE NAME INDICATES CLOSENESS
DISSIMILARITY INDICATES DISTANCE
The gamut of previously selected characters and their corresponding
states, expressed by the diversity of organisms,
the basic tool required for the construction of this device. The
information on the object, (ecological, structural and functional, including
genetically ones) is arranged in logical sequence
(Fig. 1) . For practical purposes 18 characters are taken into
with 18 or 9 states (Fig. 2).
sequence of characters being artificial for convenience, odd
will have 18 states, whereas even positions will have 9 states each. Those
characters with less number of states take even positions whereas
with more number of states occupy odd positions. Each character state is
represented by a number, for the time being integers,
to the taxon in question. The character-position relationship remaining
the corresponding states become comparable and hence the uniformity regarding
the data recordings.
mechanical recording, the numbers are useful whereas phonetic symbols help in
the effective communication in the scientific world. This is the reason why
phonetic equivalents replace the numbers.
convenience, consonants are chosen at the odd positions, and
at the even positions. (Fig. 3).
Provisions are made to locate the lack of information at any position
with the insertion of a zero in number and with a "Q" phonetically.
This would facilitate future lines of investigation.
REVISE CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY
18 characters and their states in 2 sets of 9 each at 18 or 9 variables each
establish positions in a logical sequence
phonetic equivalents (18 consonants at odd and 9 vowel/diphthongs
unknown state of any character by a o (zero) in number or in q in letter
appropriate number/letter as and when information becomes available. this
permits the corrections to the already established units to more
exploration/wider range. store adequately for later use.
codified procedure avoids all the defects of the existing Systems of
classification and nomenclature. Furthermore, the expanded version of the code
would provide a technical description or even a suitable illustration, thus
giving full significance to the name and its
There is no question of synonymy or homonym because the number of possible
permutations provides a very wide range without repetition (in the order of 7. 7
x 1019 ). Regional recompilations could be fed to a centralized
computer for convenience of global handling, avoiding the present day barriers
in communication (delay in
distribution methods, language and geographical distance, etc.); it should
reduce the excessive costs in the documentation side as well. The device has
application, subject to necessary adjustments, to any taxon to be named or
classified, not necessarily plants.
the implementation of such a device should be preceded by fulfillment of the
following obvious conditions:
Revision of the basic terminology that would facilitate maximum
expression with minimum effort for use in photography.
Selection of characters and their states which would be most suitable for
use at a global level.
Complete unanimity among the users to adopt such a device to obtain the
best results and maximum benefits.
STEARN W. T.
: Botanical Latin (London U. K.; Thomas Nelson & Sons)
Reprinted from PHYTOMORPHOLOGY, Vol. 34, Nos. 1-4, March-December, 1984
Issued March 31, 1985, pp. 78-81.
spatial and temporal discontinuity of tracheary elements-tracheids, vessels or
xylem fibers- poses structural barriers for the conduction presumably occurring
through these elements. Treating such a tissue as "conducting tissue"
or "vascular tissue" is a conceptual error.
In this paper, therefore, it is argued that all physiological activities,
specifically the conduction of solutes from the surroundings to within the plant
body or vice versa, can occur only in the symplast. The apoplast is a
consequence of degeneration of protoplasts, probably due to an accumulation of
toxic metabolites either in the form of non-convertible or re-convertible
organic compounds. In order to explain structure in relation to function plant
anatomists and physiologists have been engaged in studies related to conduction
in plants (Bollard 1960, Esau 1977, Evert 1982, Fahn 1982, Grew 1982, Metcalfe
and Chalk 1979, Zimmermann and Milburn 1975). Entry of
raw materials into the plant body, its translocation all over the organism, mode
of utilization, release of energy and the synthesis of metabolic products, their
translocation and transformation etc. are topics of much interest, which have
been discussed extensively. Very few attempts are made to present the process as
a whole. Both causes and effects should be considered in each process. All
aspects of knowledge should collectively lead to obvious conclusions without any
scope for contradiction.
raw materials needed for metabolism in a plant should come from its
surroundings. The nutritional demands vary from time to time and phase to phase
in a plant. Due to practical limitations small plants or cuttings are used for
experimentation. Quantitative and qualitative measurements may be made in
relation to the growth of the plant body by controlling external conditions like
climate, substratum, air, water etc. The metabolic process within the plant body
may be measured indirectly by biochemical or biophysical methods (For example,
quantifying the oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide released, increase in volume,
shape, density, weight, number of cells, their arrangement etc.) The energy
consumed or released may be calculated to an approximation using some or all
parameters, usually with the help of biostatistical methods.
spite of the availability of voluminous literature, so far there is no
satisfactory explanation regarding the medium or modus operandi of conduction in
plants. Few speculative hypotheses have been put forward but no conclusive proof
is given (Bollard 1960, Nobel 1974, Peel 1974). But why? Theoretical or
conceptual errors might have given rise to faulty techniques, faulty techniques
might, in turn, have contributed to the limited points of view; limited
information hinders the total vision.
the plant body has to be considered as an organism in a continuous vital
process. Due to structural and functional differences,
unlike animals, in plants there is no question of "maturity" at any
level of organization. What is observed is a process of ontogenetic
differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration. Unlike animals,
plants do not take in food nor possess various structural and functional
systems. The absence of such "systems" in plants implies a
physiological difference. (See next chapter).
an organism with millions of cells individual cells should not be treated as
Only for the sake of understanding is this distinction made at this point. When
the plant body commences either in the form of a zygote (sporophyte) or a spore
(gametophyte) there is an initial stage of naked protoplast which secretes a
cell wall of its own all around. At each successive division the protoplast is
partially separated by the formation of the cell wall only in one facet.
However, plasmodesmata maintain the continuity of the protoplasm. In other
words, in any given cell all the facets are not necessarily produced at the same
time and the walls do not separate the protoplasts totally. Structurally similar
cells may exhibit physiological differences; it is obvious that all vital
processes occur only in the protoplast. Plant cells are
classified as living or dead on the basis of the presence or absence of
protoplasts within them. When the protoplast is absorbed or dissolved, the cell
wall remains and is considered to be a dead cell for all practical purposes. Living
and dead cells may coexist in a plant, whereas in an animal the dead cells are
constantly removed from its body.
Also, in animals the tissue demarcation is evident due to structural differences
between the constituent cells. The absence of plasmodesmata in animals is
accompanied by the absence of cell walls. Therefore,
theoretically there is no structural comparison between plant and animal bodies;
it should be so functionally as well.
plants there is a synthetic process in the reception, conversion and
accumulation of electromagnetic energy into chemical energy after enjoying the
"vital energy" (bioenergy) during the metabolism. Whereas in animals,
this accumulated chemical energy is released and partly utilized during vital
the plant body is perceived in this fashion as a continuum, the perspective
changes. The ontogeny should be taken into consideration as a whole, both in
space and time, and not as a few instances here and there in this process.
Partial views do not yield a complete picture. Conduction in plants has been
studied but with faulty techniques. The methodology used
to obtain evidence in support of the hypotheses proposed so far on the xylem
transport warrants some comments. Two methods are described and are generally
employed to obtain 'xylem sap' for analysis. In both cases assumptions and
presumptions contribute to the factual errors.
"Xylem" is taken for granted as a conducting tissue and hence the
exudate is taken from it to study conduction.
Little or no attention has been given to the structural
complexity involving different cell types that make up the "xylem",
although elsewhere in plant anatomy elaborate descriptions are made regarding
the protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem. They differ in their origin,
cytology, cell types and contents.
No effort is made to identify the element from which the "xylem sap: is
obtained. In the literature when xylem vessel is considered as a conducting
element no reference is made as to whether or not the adjacent xylem parenchyma
is involved in the process. In what way does it differ if the xylem is devoid of
Structural continuity of the xylem is not considered with reference to the
entire plant. In other words, the three dimensional distribution of xylem
parenchyma, xylem vessel members, xylem fibers and xylem tracheids in the
protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem is generally ignored.
In one and the same vessel the constituent cell-initials near the meristems
contain protoplasts, whereas farther away mere cell walls remain.
is observed in laboratory plant materials (limited in quantity and quality) is
presumed to occur in nature.
of the techniques called "root bleeding" obtains exudates from the
"cut ends nearest to the base of the stem." In anatomical literature
this region corresponds to the hypocotylary area in most of the plants studied.
In taxa where the cotyledons remain embedded within the seed coat during
germination, the first internode corresponds to this region. In monocotyledonous
taxa this may be the cotyledonary node. This is the so called "transition
region" where there is "splitting, twisting, torsion, fusion,
reorientation etc." of the "vascular bundles" or there is
anastomosis of "conducting elements." In any case, it is impossible to
isolate "xylem." This situation may be further complicated in
diotyledonous taxa with the onset of activity in the "vascular
cambium" to produce "secondary xylem" not completely
distinguishable from the metaxylem. In the case of clonal multiplication, as is
frequently done in horticulture, the adventitious roots arise from the callus
produced from the dedifferentiated parenchymatous cells of the shoot. At this
region, as in any other part of the plant, the "xylem" consists of
cells with protoplasts and those devoid of the same, usually intermixed.
Therefore, attempts to obtain "root exudates from cut ends nearest to the
base of the stem" requires refined techniques which can verify the source
of the exudate with precision. In science where accuracy and precision are basic
principles such techniques are examples of how they should not be!
second technique used obtains xylem exudates from the sap wood. "Recently
matured xylem elements" sounds attractive but is not precise. First of all,
to locate the "mature" elements and to sharply circumscribe the cell(s)
involved will be a perpetual problem when the plant body is perceived as a
continuum; dynamic vitality is the secret of totipotency. After division,
differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration a cell derived
from the meristematic region becomes "mature." While an adjacent cell
is still at the division process closer to the meristematic region, the derived
cell farther away might exhibit all or some of the stages of differentiation,
specialization or degeneration of the protoplast. Only by the deposition of the
secondary wall material with the absorption or degeneration of the protoplasts
the tracheary cells attain their "maturity." Again, it is to be noted
that in xylem the cells adjacent to a vessel may be parenchyma, tracheid or even
another vessel member, not necessarily at the same stage of maturity. Whatever
be the case, there is no horizontal perforation plate between the vessel member
and the adjacent cell(s). When three dimensional growth process in plants is
conceived as such, the longitudinal as well as the horizontal protoplasmic
continuity will have to be taken into consideration. The intercalating cell
walls (cellulosic ones deposited secondarily after the elongation and adjustment
of the cells) may partially interrupt the protoplasmic continuity. If a cell has
attained physiological maturity all activities related to the metabolism should
be located in that particular cell. This implies that a lot of the biochemical
and enzymatic processes can take place only if the protoplast is intact. In
other words, symplastic activity carries out these vital processes, whereas the
apoplastic parts of the plant cannot participate actively in such processes.
Both climatic and edaphic conditions play an important role in the process of
plant growth. The phenophase at which each plant is found at the time of
obtaining the samples of the "xylem sap" is also of importance. In the
tropics, where there is apparently no such seasonal changes as in temperate
regions, plants of the same taxon may exhibit different phenophases, sometimes
even in one and the same individual. The "xylem sap" constitutes part
of living protoplasm since it contains metabolic products like amino-acids,
carbohydrates, enzyme systems, growth regulators etc. (Peel, 1974).
Water-conducting vessels or tracheids, devoid of protoplast when
"mature", at best should contain water and dissolved salts (raw
materials) but no finished products. In the literature no mechanism is explained
how the sap from the symplast gets converted into water and dissolved salts when
it enters the apoplast.
both techniques used which obtained the exudate or sap either from the cut ends
of roots nearest to the base of the stem or from the recently matured xylem
elements of the sap wood, present theoretical and practical drawbacks.
aphid technique to study the phloem exudate depends on the selectivity of these
insects. It is assumed that the phloem is the conducting tissue. The
protoplasmic ultra structure involving endoplasmic reticulum, organelles,
nuclear material and other cytoplasmic inclusions are aspects not taken into
consideration to explain the functional details of the tissue.
(1982) says "The tracheary elements of the xylem have rigid walls and lack
protoplasts at maturity. These structural characteristics facilitate the rapid
movement of water and dissolved solutes under considerable tension induced
largely by transpirational loss of water from the surface of the leaves."
There is no proof in the literature for this statement. Stem cuttings devoid of
leaves do not transpire but there is absorption and conduction within. It is
interesting, however, that the same author, with reference to phloem, considers
"In order to have a clear understanding of translocation it is essential to
correlate the structure with the function of the tissues and cell types
concerned." If this is true for phloem, criteria should not vary when xylem
is under consideration.
aspect of the language used in descriptive anatomy is worth considering here.
Although these statements are common to any text book on general botany or plant
anatomy for the sake of clarity the following sentences are quoted from Fahn
188: ".....the primary vascular cylinder is interrupted at each node by the
exit of one or more bundles that enter the leaves."
189: ".....it is necessary to study more accurately the nature of the
traces and to follow their passage downwards in the stem."
190: ".....Leaf trace bundles was used to designate those that directly
connect the leaf and stele. Cauline bundle refers to those bundles that form the
major vascular system of the stem and which may anastomose and give rise to leaf
traces. The term common bundle has been used for those bundles that run
unbranched for a relatively long distance in the stem and which eventually
terminate in a leaf trace." ".....the
vascular system of the stem can be interpreted as being a system of leaf traces
that continue downwards in the stem for one or more internodes where they fuse
with the leaf traces of the lower nodes."
193: ".....These penetrate deep into the interior of the stem and then pass
to the periphery in lower nodes."
reader of such statements interprets this as if here is a physical movement or
material motion. No effort is being made to explain how, during, ontogeny,
differentiation and specialization as a process produce such configuration of
cells or groups of cells in the plant body, or how the final external or
internal structure appears to be a network formed of cells or groups of cells in
a specific manner as a consequence of morphogenetic expression.
"Dichotomously branched veins" commonly found in ferns again refers to
the final expression and has nothing to do with the dichotomy produced by the
splitting of the apical meristem into two equal halves each developing into a
branch. Whether it is a conceptual error or the limitation of the language is
the question. Such ambiguous interpretations should be avoided in science. Other
terms equally ambiguous are: "conducting strand." "vascular
tissue," "higher plants or lower plants." These are products of
speculation or anthropomorphism (see Font Quer 1973 for other terms). The
description of the "transition zone," as exhibiting "splitting,
twisting, torsion, fusion, etc. of bundles" is misleading. First of all the
roots have no such bundles, because the xylem and phloem elements are not found
in the same radius, secondly the individual cells constituting the xylem and
phloem units do not suffer such torture during differentiation, specialization
is again impossible to detect vascular bundles down below the stem, especially
in trees or other perennials where the onset of the secondary growth is very
close to the apical meristem, sometimes only a few plastochrons below. Such
being the case, tracing the individual bundles several nodes below is next to
impossible. The nodal plate formation, especially in monocotyledonous taxa, is a
typical example to show that the bundles do not "run" beyond one
internode. In plants devoid of leaves the internodes present xylem and phloem in
distinct patterns as bundles where it is again impossible to talk about leaf
traces. The presence of intercalary meristems at the nodal region, as in many
monocotylonous taxa, or at the base of the primordial of lateral appendage or at
the base of the fruit stalk or even the fruit itself is a significant feature.
There are meristematic cells or in other words, cells that have the capacity to
undergo division and differentiation interrupt the continuity of xylem and/or
phloem strands. The network of xylem and phloem elements within the leaf blade
is a product of differentiation and specialization in situ. The final form may
look like a profusely branching network. Even then the direction of vascular
differentiation is described as basipetal. That is to say that the xylem or
phloem elements get "mature" at the leaf tip and then progressively
downward. Hence, the last region where xylem elements get differentiated will be
the leaf base corresponding to the intercalary meristem. The so-called leaf
trace within the leaf differentiates basipetally but within the stem acropetally.
In other words, the meristematic region gets differentiated finally. The
continuity of the xylem or phloem is interrupted accordingly.
tropical trees it is common to observe the intact leaves on stems and branches
that have undergone secondary thickening. In these cases the vascular cambium
has produced a sufficient amount of secondary xylem and secondary phloem between
the primary phloem of the stem, thus occupying the region of leaf gap. In other
words, once the cambial activity is evident the xylem of the stem does not
maintain organic connections with the primary xylem of the leaves. The cambial
activity is so extensive that the primary phloem of the stem is either
obliterated or even thrown away as "periderm" following the activity
of the cork cambium. How then is it possible to maintain the water supply
through the xylem? If symplastic and apoplastic paths could be combined, as has
been done in the recent literature, special mechanisms will have to be proposed
for transfer of water and dissolved salts repeatedly from the symplast to the
apoplast and vice versa.
structural considerations serve to clarify the process. For example:
Xylem parenchyma cells occur in between the protoxylem vessel elements and the
metaxylem vessel elements (may be any other tracheary elements). Within the
desmogen those elements which differentiate and specialize with secondary wall
thickenings are optically distinguishable from the neighbouring elements devoid
of such peculiarities.
Protoxylem element (irrespective of the type of element) gets obliterated either
by stretching of the primary body or by the rupture of the secondary wall
material as a consequence of the stretching. The protoplast is already used up
during the cell- ontogeny. In monocotyledonous taxa, where these elements were
present, empty spaces (lacunae) occur at maturity. These cells or groups of
cells along the same location nearer the meristem may have protoplasts and hence
physiological activities are possible in this region.
Away from the meristem, on the other hand, when there is additional
differentiation and specialization, metaxylem elements are formed out of the
desmogen. These metaxylem elements are not in longitudinal continuity with the
protoxylem elements, nor are they found adjacent to one another. At least the
vessel elements are separated by other types of cells in between.
When the fascicular cambium is present (the undifferentiated cells of the
demsogen in between the differentiated ones), the production of
"secondary" elements out of these fusiform initials is in the
proximity of the metaxylem. The gradation is smooth that one can hardly
distinguish between the late formed metaxylem element and the early formed
secondary xylem element. Moreover, the differentiated and specialized cells in
either case may be tracheids, fibers, vessel members or parenchyma cells at
In monocotyledonous taxa where the primary growth is maintained throughout, a
bundle sheath formed of sclerenchymatous cells is common; this is best seen in
grasses. In order to explain the conduction through the xylem or, for that
matter, phloem elements, it is necessary to show how water and the dissolved
solutes traverse through the dead cells (sclerenchymatous ones), longitudinally
and transversely. In such case even the sclerenchymatous bundle sheath should
have been called "conducting tissue."
The absence of a distinct arrangement of bundles or even the separation of xylem
and phloem elements at the nodal region is quite interesting compared to the
clear-cut bundle appearance at the inter nodal region. The anastomoses of these
elements at each node under primary growth at the apical regions of the shoot
should be noted.
The interpolation of newly differentiated and specialized elements derived from
lateral meristem in the axis of the plants (in dicotyledonous and gymnospermous
taxa) between the primary xylem and primary phloem, maintains the discontinuity.
The early onset of cambial activity produces significant quantities of secondary
xylem and phloem elements in between the primary elements of the lateral
appendages of limited growth and the primary body of the stem axis. This
separation of primary elements, even if the individual cell continuity is
overlooked for the time being, is of great importance at the time of
consideration of these elements as conducting in function. The elements of the
primary phloem may get differentiated to "cortical fibers" when the
cortex is intact or it may be sloughed off as periderm after the activity of the
phellogen. At the same time the primary phloem elements in the appendage are
still alive and are actively participating in the physiological functions of the
The presence of tracheary elements and phloem elements in the mesophyll of the
leaf blade is interpreted as an evidence of conduction. However, it is
interesting to note that such arrangements are not seen in cladodes where the
cortical cells are replete with chloroplasts. Does it mean that when there are
cladodes no conduction is required to supply the soil solution to the place of
Cut flowers or stem cuttings stay fresh in water in spite of the absence of
absorbing root ends.
At the embryonic level there is xylem and phloem differentiation but the water
and soil solution is not absorbed nor conducted from the surroundings through
the `vascular strands.' The energy required is available either from the
surrounding endosperm or is stored in the cotyledon(s). The xylem and phloem
elements in the embryo do not have organic connection with the xylem and phloem
of the plant bearing the seed or fruit.
In all aquatic plants (whether attached to the substrate, suspended or
free-floating), though to a lesser extent, there is differentiation of xylem and
In grafts the success depends on the callus formation and the establishment of
organic continuity between the protoplasts rather than the connection between
the xylem or phloem elements.
Colouring substances like safranin normally used to optically distinguish the
tracheary elements of the xylem have special chemical reactions with the wall
material deposited. Any experiment wherein the walls get coloured does not
"prove" that the conduction is through those cells but only signifies
that the colouring matter has reached that region of the organism, and
consequently reacts with the wall material making the wall optically
distinguishable from the neighbouring cells where such reaction has not taken
place. The colour is not manifest in the protoplast even when safranin or other
colouring substances pass through the same. This only proves that the chemical
reaction has not taken place or the intensity of the colour is too little for
observation or that the concentration of the colouring matter is too dilute.
With these points under consideration the following conclusions have been drawn:
The absorption of water and solutes dissolved in it or in air occurs through the
living cells at the surface of the organism.
Once within the protoplast, the raw materials serve in the metabolism of the
When the supply of raw materials is abundant the protoplast increases in size,
improves in quality - within the limits of specific range and may divide
partially to maintain more physiologically active units, the cells. Each derived
cell is a continuation of the previous one through plasmodesmata. In other
words, the wall formation along only one facet at a time is incomplete because
of the presence of pits.
Each living cell (meristematic, parenchymatous, epidermal, companion cells, ray
cells, phellodermal cells, lenticels etc.) utilize whatever raw material it
needs, for the specific physiological activity it has to perform, from the
absorbed solution. The raw materials not used and the metabolic products formed
within the protoplast pass on to the adjacent cells through plasmodesmata.
The limited number of mutilated and degenerated protoxylem elements are
incapable of transporting enormous quantity of water and solvents absorbed by
the root hairs.
All such movements are possible due to the "vital force" or the "bioenergy"
within the protoplast.
Tracheids, vessel members or vascular elements and sclerenchymatous cells are
formed by the deposition of metabolic products or waste material of the
These cell walls, frames devoid of any protoplast, compactly arranged at regular
patterns provide the organism with necessary mechanical strength and also serve
as reservoirs of waste materials. They do not participate in any live processes
cited 1. Bollard, E. G. 196
Transport in xylem, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 11: 141-166. 2. Esau, K. 197 Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd Ed. John Wiley
and Sons, New York. 3. Evert, R. F.
1982 Sieve-tube structure in relation to function. Bioscience 32 32 (10);
789-795. 4. Fahn, A. 1982 Plant
Anatomy, 3rd Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford. 5.
Font Quer, P. 197 Diccionario de
Botanica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona, Spain. 6. Grew, N. 1682 The Anatomy of Plants, Johnson Reprint
Corporation, New York (1965). 7.
Metcalfe, C. R. and L. Chalk 1979 Anatomy of Dicotyledons. 2nd Ed. Oxford
University Press, Oxford. 8. Nobel,
P. S. 1974 Introduction to Biophysical Plant Physiology, W. H. Freeman and
Company, San Francisco. 9. Peel, A.
J. 1974 Transport of Nutrients in Plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
10. Zimmermann, M. H. and J. A. Milburn (Eds.) 1975 Transport in plants
I. Pholem transport. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 1.
Guest Lecture at "Vanashree" : Association of Botany Teachers of Mangalore University, Mulky, on 30th August, 1987.
PLANTS AND ANIMALS
organisms differ from one another in many ways. The structural *
functional dynamism leads to characteristic individuality without *
duality. However, in the plant kingdom the totipotency of *
protoplasm makes it possible to obtain clonal multiplication by *
of <F14P11MI>in vitro<F255P255D> or <F14P11MI>in
Chimeral peculiarities and keen and careful observation *
with special selection methods by intelligent farmers have *
to the number of cultivators even among such clonal multiplication
protoplasm is in constant expansion by incorporation of new *
from the surrounding air, water, soil and light energy. *
energy requirements for normal functioning of the organism is *
and used up during the process. Several fresh components *
constantly added on to the protoplasm as excess or metabolic *
or reserves. The overall picture emerging from this process *
be considered as growth. In order to accommodate this addition *
new protoplasm the plant body should expand and increase in biomass.
meristematic activity maintained by the protoplasm leads to two *
of expansion externally and internally. External expansion of *
plant body is attained by proliferation of foliage surface into *
number of smaller appendages of limited growth known as "leaves". *
pattern, shape, size, etc. are specific within given range of *
This necessitates new branches and branch systems. In *
to maintain this new expansion and to support the branch system *
main axis requires sufficient strength and girth. More and more *
products require transportation and storing capacity in an *
fashion. This presses for a new arrangements. Tangential *
take place in specific cells (known as cambium layer)
efficiency for that purpose. The waste material being toxic to *
protoplasm gets transformed into wall material and gets located *
the cell walls providing space and strength to the organism.
gamut of such establishment in plant body is known as wood material
sizable quantity of carbohydrates like lignin, cellulose, xylin, *
entire plant body is normally formed of a single protoplasm with *
septation called cell walls delimiting much of the metabolic *
within these partial walls known as "cells". Any living *
(vegetable) has totipotency capable of expansion into new *
The organisation of the plant body with or without these *
septations is common. A multicellular organisation like that *
a tree is considered as a complex system whereas coenocytic nature *
as observed in algae is considered as less specialised or even *
primitive by those who speculate with phylogeny.
onset of meiosis in plants is preceded by complete septation whereas
mitosis only partial septation is the rule.
= Vegetative branches arising from root stocks as shoots *
common among flowering plants. In the concerned literature this *
is referred to as "root connections" in tropical trees, *
in the tropical rain forests. Monocotyledonous plants in *
present subterranean root stock or rhizome. Among Dicotyledons *
phenomenon is observed in the following genera:
Ficus, Azadirachta. Aegle, Artocarpus, Spondias, Melia Murraya,
Platymiscium, Lantana, Clerodendron, Crescentia etc.<F255P255D>
the ploidy or number of chromosomes it is interesting to *
that the zygotic nucleus is diploid due to the fusion of two *
Endosperm nucleus is triploid right from the beginning.
is observed in derived cells such as epidermal ones or *
initials or derivatives like tracheal cells. How such changes *
or how they influence the rest of the functions is not known.
plants, the spiral energy field in each cell leads the deposition *
cellulosic wall material in a specific pattern until a limit
its function within. When the function comes to a minimal expression
with the deposition of further wall materials until the *
gets completely emptied.
presence of various kinds of meristematic activity provides
protoplasm or new cells in continuation of the energy field until *
is a change in the energy field which in turn transforms the *
growth to a limited growth. This state may have influence *
various external and/or internal factors. Depending on the
relative time/space relationship varies and the biodiversity
mitotic division produces partially partitioned proto-plasts known *
two derived cells each with specific potentialities and hence
plants, meiosis has a different aspect than in animals. The sex *
plants is functional efficiency whereas in animals there is also *
distinction to a larger extent.
seed bears the link between the two generations. In the case of *
however the partition of protoplast is complete and hence *
get totally separated to constitute distinct cells.
= Fig. 7. 1 Dynamic
living organism is a dynamic process, spirally extending, asymmetrical
pattern limited in space and time. This process commences with *
fusion and has a natural end known as death. The process
for growth, maintenance, repair and deterioration, intake fresh *
and reproduce while alive.
daily rotation of the planet on its polar axis exposes an area *
the surface to the sunlight during day time. During night time *
shadow of the planet coincides with the tail end atmosphere exposing
surface to the star light. Any object on the surface whether
or mobile gets automatically rotated along with the surface. *
360 degrees of this rotation takes about 23 hours 56 minutes and *
= 1. The process is an integration of electromagnetic energy *
combination with air, water and dissolved salt by conversion into *
energy compounds as metabolic products constituting plant *
including reception of raw materials, combination of the same, *
into convenient compounds as well as benefiting with
and finally conserving the excesses to constitute the biomass.
= 1. Disintegration of biomass and utilization of energy *
is the basic principle.
= 2. Accordingly, anatomical and histological delimitations *
not clear-cut so as to detect from outside nor from inside. There *
no distinction into organs, systems and tissue systems. Not even *
cells are separable one from the other. The protoplasm *
continuous with partial septation during cell wall deposition the *
remaining as pits. Only in special circumstances a complete *
is observed as for example during sporogenesis or
of labour is reduced thus enhancing the physiological
process automatically places individual "units" with structural *
but functional diversity.
= 3. Ontogenetic changes are common with structural or
and capacity to reversion of viable functional units.
are not easily demarcated and vitality may be
= 3. Ontogenic changes are structurally and functionally *
as expressed in terms of clear cut phases like infancy, *
youth, adult, senility etc.... Vitality differs at each *
although gradually in some cases and sharply in others.
= 4. Protoplasmic continuity is evident right from the initial
celled structure independent of the parent protoplasm although *
remains there for support is some cases.<R>*
exchange of metabolic products between the parent protoplasm *
the next generation protoplasm is available for convenience of *
= 4. Protoplasmic continuity is not seen right from the *
stage even when the young ones are dependent on the parent *
support or nutrients.
= 5. Totipotency of plant protoplasm should be considered *
its immortality without any comparison with animal protoplasm.
earthworms or similar animals, such animals are limited in number.
mammals, some areas like bone marrow or gonads maintain
better still, meristematic activity to some extent.
= 6. Potential genetic material in the zygote does not produce
hormonal systems or expressions since the organism is not *
for such demarcation.
= 6. Potential genetic material early during ontogeny
differentiation of structural specialization and in many cases *
determinations. This process, once initiated, may continue *
later stages of ontogeny gradually or all of a sudden. For *
meiotic division decides the sex of the individual. Early *
initiates the differentiation of a female body whereas delayed *
some cases even after 12 years) meiotic divisions lead to a male *
= 7. Some organisms present one kind of gametes with specific
whether producing them only once in life time or repeatedly. *
in other cases one and the same individual produces both *
of gametes in corresponding structures with temporary duration. *
process may be retained permanently throughout the duration of *
= 8. The absence of predetermined organs is the basis of *
combined with the structural fluidity of protoplasm *
the totipotency as a phenomenon unique of its kind. The need *
the moment for the benefit of the organism determines the type *
division or the type of derived structures or kind of
times, climatic, edaphic or biotic factors may determine the path *
= 8. Predetermined structure is the result of cell division, *
specialisation and other functional
functional maturity is specific to cells, organs, systems or spatial
temporal distribution of division of labour.
= PLANT GROWTH
specific pattern produced during a particular process in a dynamic *
such as a plant body is the external expression of the organism
to sense organs. The internal and external causes which *
this process remain unnoticeable in space and time.
these causes are identified with letters of the alphabet a, b, *
= Plant growth pattern = a+b+c+d+........n.
each cause may be sum total of several or reduced number of factors
= <F2P10M>a = (1+2+3+4+5......)<F255P255D>
= <F2P10M>b = (1-2)<F255P255D>
= <F2P10M>c = (1<197>2)
= <F2P10MJ185>d = (1x3)<F255P255DJ0>
= Each one of these factors may be biotic or abiotic, that *
climatic or edaphic in specific sequences.
the biotic factors those related to structure and physiological *
play predominant roles.
factors may be associated with plants or animals.
flow gradients within the organism also are significant *
Spatial location will influence the process.
behaviour of cell components such as nucleus or cytoplasm *
variation in due course. Depending on the quality of available
the organism presents cell division elongation, adjustment, *
specialization, functional maturity and metabolic *
reposition among other processes.
plant protoplasm absorbs electromagnetic energy combining it with *
water, as well as dissolved salts, to obtain necessary nutrients *
metabolic energy. Excedents are efficiently located in the form *
organic matter whether protoplasm or cell wall material.
singular functional capacity of the plant protoplasm places the *
as the primary producer of biomass in this biosphere. (See chapter
to establish a comparison with animals, which are the main consumers
plant protoplasm produces a series of substances, besides the *
in general, specific substances such as alkaloids, crystals, *
and resins, growth promoters, growth retarders and others.
of these components from the place of production through *
protoplasm to the sites of conservation is highly specific and *
The re-conversion of these reserves whenever required
the protoplasm and their utilization, are processes requiring
local action, reaction and interaction followed by the final over *
effect are all important aspects for consideration.
of the protoplasm along a specific underlying pattern *
sealing off certain portion of the protoplasm and expansion of *
to accommodate the biomass produced, are considered as *
capacity to perpetuate, or simply, totipotency.
the internal factors, nuclear material, genetic capacity and *
speed, genetic combinations at each sexual union,
due to diverse mutagens, are all significant aspects.
a rule, those nuclei which are destined to divide to form gametes *
double genetic material compared to the gametic nucleus. Other *
may exhibit diverse quantities of nuclear material, a condition *
known as polyploidy. The variability of nuclear material *
of great importance in the pattern produced by the same. This
be beneficially used in quality improvement of agricultural crops.
association of algae, bacteria or fungi with plants produces *
characteristic structural patterns in each case. Proliferation
these organisms may occur by fragmentation or by other means. In *
the fungal partner may produce spores which germinate into *
network serving as a receptive cushion for algal spore. While *
algal component serves as a primary producer, the fungal component *
as supporting consumer. A natural expression of cooperative *
for mutual benefit is rare enough to observe.
gymnosperms these may be algal or fungal association within *
protoplasm causing coralloid roots as a specific dichotomous pattern
to the presence of abundant algae. These algal partners should *
special physiological means to produce biomass since they occur *
in host protoplasm. The mutual action, reaction, interaction *
final effect are all interesting processes for study.
bacterial root nodules are proliferation products of root cortical *
into nodular patterns characteristic of each variety. The
the bacterial cells in the protoplasm right from the embryonic *
guarantees this symbiosis in this way, pattern specific at *
times depending on the host.
galls produced on the leaves, branches, nodes or internodes present
protoplasmic proliferationĺs as a response to particular types *
wounds, insects or other animal species which make use of the cavity
habitat or for procreation. Repeated pasturing by sheep, goats *
cattle produces a continuous pruning effect on grass or other *
with a proportionate reaction in the form of proliferation *
establishing a specific growth pattern.
adjustments by frequent pruning is horticultural creativity *
human beings just as Bonsai practices from Japan. These patterns *
not long lasting nor are they inherited.
eat fruits and the seeds get propagated through the bird
these seeds belong to specific parasitic taxa grow on host plants,
parasite gets established. Sometimes they grow as epiphytes and *
after reaching a water source, generally by long hanging roots, *
themselves, strangling the host plants to develop
= 1. Climatic Factors
rotation movement of the planet exposes one side of the same to *
whereas the dark side corresponds to the shadow extending *
the night half. The atmosphere, especially the gaseous and *
vapor contents, get heated up at a faster rate than the soil *
while cold air flows in establishing air flow. When the *
movement of the planet is also considered, this air flow may *
high speed winds or even hurricanes with force. The relative *
of the planet on its helical orbit exposes specific areas *
the sunlight and thus causes seasonal changes. Therefore, climate *
again a sum total expression of several factors like planetary *
incident sunlight varied wind speeds and directions of *
flow. Temperature range and fluctuation on a daily basis is yet *
factor in climatic condition.
of water and air for the organism, its quality and
the micro -and macro- levels. The quality and quantity of *
light plays important role in climate determination.
= 2. Edaphic Factors
factors include the substrate, quality and quantity of available
and proportion of diverse minerals the particle size, water
solubility of mineral in available water, interference by *
or human activities like grazing or industrialization.
movements produce certain adjustments of soil, rock and *
of particles, water retention capacity, organic matter
salts and their proportion, soil acidity, are other aspects *
be considered while dealing with edaphic factors which affect plant *
forms with wide diversity may be observed at different
communities. The maximum expression is present in the tropical *
forests with major biodiversity abundant and exuberant.
the seed plants, plants grow, flowers produce fruits and seeds *
may get dried up. The seed has a hard shell covering the tender *
within. The outer shell is derived from the former generation *
the embryo comes to be the next generation. However under normal *
embryo free of shell does not remain viable for long. *
bridging up between the two generations is a key point to indicate
continuity of life process, with dynamic expressions of the whole.
to fraction or reduce the whole process to smaller *
only serve for limited knowledge while analysis. For synthetic *
the total dynamic process should be taken into account.
= LAW OF NATURE
Nature, within a framework of space time unit, there is a dynamic *
a dynamic whole. Any organism within the biosphere
basic functional unit of this dynamic process. However, even rocks *
continuously. The structural and functional diversity is the *
of a sum total of internal and external factors. The *
of nature is to exist.
prejudice or partiality is possible in such a process. Only man- *
laws are biased and hence serve for convenience alone. Polarity *
yet another manifestation in natural objects. When the dynamic *
acquires this polarity, symmetry is obtained.
radial or a combination of these two symmetries is sufficient
manifest patterns specific to each variety of organisms. However, *
there, individuality of organisms is maintained structurally *
functionally. The so-called adult form of any living being is *
but a gamut of continuously changing process with deterioration,
and growth. This is the reason the form, in the strict sense, *
impossible for definition in absolute terms.
quality and quantity of input and output may add to the expression *
internal and external factors. In practice, each organization or *
is conceived with or associated to a specific form, given names *
even codified for communication facilities.
onset of successive events leading to a definite form or shape *
of interest, specially so whether the process is gradual or abrupt. *
an attempt to understand this infinite nature, the finite human *
has tried to evaluate and fix up values for all. The limited *
capacity to perceive the world through sense organs makes all *
imitating Nature, the human kind has given a shabby example and *
sorry figure. (Birds-airplanes; fish-submarines; snakes- trains; *
eyes-lenses; natural sounds-sound of music etc.)
primordial vibration or accompanying sound waves are least
some, ignored by others, unknown to many. Sit in a comfortable *
but hold the backbone straight. Using both hands, close your *
with ring and little fingers, your nostrils with the middle ones, *
eyes with index fingers and your ears with thumbs. Observe the *
sound within the living organism. This sound is heard
the ocean, sea shells, blowing winds etc.
these natural phenomena should be the basic object of *
Suitable methods will have to be designed and put into *
to communicate the message effectively. Appropriate techniques
fully avail the benefits without damaging the rest, should be the *
= CAUSE OF BIODIVERSITY
numbers in mathematical terms express quantity alone with no *
about the quality. Sometimes all are given equal opportunities *
possibilities and capacity being unique, no comparison is possible *
another. Therefore, when quality and capacity are added up to *
and possibilities one can never be equal to another.
is a live process quite significant in living organisms during *
A nucleus destined to divide meiotically is strategically *
so that the division products result in haploid nuclei. The *
of chromosomes in a given nucleus gets spread out in an
of the cell protoplasm. Longitudinal splitting and separation *
opposite poles accompanied by cytoplasmic partitioning results *
four nuclei with half the chromosome numbers as seen in the original
First division reduces the number of chromosomes while second *
maintains the number once reduced. When the first nuclear *
products are identified as A and B, at second division the *
may be designated as A1 A2 and B1 B2 for clarity.
each one of these four develops into one gamete each four
gametes are produced. However, when it is a question of female *
normally only one out of four remains as a female gamete while *
others get absorbed or die off. For easy distinction M1 M2 N1 *
are female ones, any one becoming functional one.
= When such gametes meet
= Fig. 9. 1
are the possible 16 different zygotes (union products) out of *
to the fact that only one female gamete is functional, practically
one zygote is formed, even when four types of male gametes are *
This is the cause of biodiversity; even in the case of twins, *
are not 100% alike.
zygote grows into an organism in due course of time when conditions
favorable. The pattern is specific but individuality is maintained *
within the range of variability.
example, human organism attains physiological maturity by puberty, *
mental maturity as well as economic stability may be attained *
later. However, the female organism is at its best physical and *
capacity between 24 to 36 year old. Generally, children delivered
this interval are much healthier than those born earlier or *
live process is dynamic, continuous, asymmetric, and limited in *
and time. An organism is born and the body degenerates in due *
The underlying pattern which enables the individual to carry *
the functions is considered as an adult. The process being
dynamic, no attempt should have been made to fraction and describe *
moments as if it were "normal" or "typical".
= CHAPTER 10
repetitions of events one after the other in a specific sequence
one direction may be considered as a spiral. When applied to living *
as dynamic processes this spiral is of limited duration *
the process commences with the birth of the individual and ends *
with his death. This spiral may be limited to one expression of *
events such as birth, growth, reproduction, degeneration and *
or a series of cyclic events in between. <F14MI>(See Fig.
spiral process once initiated may become infinite due to vegetative
multiplication known also as cloning. Here one spiral
process whereas a number of subsequent spirals arise by simple *
or fragmentation, a natural event or an artifact produced *
other agents like human beings while gardening or cultivation through
rose cuttings, sugar cane, tapioca, potatoes, yams,
etc., are good examples of this phenomenon.
in a while, the onset of sexual reproduction may enhance the *
of the product, as in the case of plants, capable of seed *
and vegetative multiplication.
organisms set seeds repeatedly without maintaining the
patterns within specific range so that biodiversity is expressed *
amplitude. A mango tree is an excellent example of this phenomenon *
several thousands of genetic combinations occur each season *
produce fruits comparable in certain qualities but each one with *
forms, size or shape, smell, taste etc.
only internal factors alter the spirals but also external factors *
substantial changes in its expression. Mainly the symmetry or *
spiral gets affected by these factors.
process, apparently cyclic, occurring repeatedly and continuously *
space and time, should be considered as spiral or helical, *
to the dynamic nature of the phenomenon, more so in a living
= 10 - 1
= 9 <|>x <|>1 =
= 9<|> x 2 = 18
= 9<|> x 3 = 27
= 9<|> x 4 = 36
= 9<|> x 5 = 45
= 9<|> x 6 = 54
= 9<|> x 7 = 63
= 9<|> x 8 = 72
= 9<|> x 9 = 81
= 9 x 10 = 90
= Spiral Pattern
flow every moment all over. When one observes these events *
one particular direction at specific intervals, it appears to be *
linear phenomenon. But in every direction such lines flow and it *
beyond the scope and capacity of any human being to follow the *
flow. The observer may look at several identical events *
after the other and concludes that it is a cyclic phenomenon.
on the observer's position, formation and capacity, events *
go unnoticed or be recorded. Microscopic details or telescopic *
may never be noticed at all. This limits the observation.
pattern unique in the known universe at macro as well as micro levels,
undoubtedly the spiral one. The Spiral pattern is observable whether
is a phenomenon, a process, an event, an entity, an organism or *
dropped in a pool of water produce concentric waves. These *
waves are nothing but a spiral pressed in one plane owing *
expansion. <F14MI>(See Figure)<F255D>
to living organism or non living material, the spiral pattern *
be considered as a basic unit. In living organisms this spiral *
is dynamic. The gametic fusion produces a zygote, starting *
for every living organism. By growth it functions as an
finally degenerates to death. All successive events from birth *
death are sequential processes with internal and external influences,
or not. This is the dynamic spiral process.
when organisms appear in regular sequence one after another
two individuals are alike in all aspects. That is the specificity *
each case. The cyclic nature, in fact, represents a spiral at short *
The so-called life cycles are nothing but a fragment of *
spiral. Biosphere is full of such organisms and therefore spiral *
nature, the spiral arrangement is quite common, right from a
to a galaxy.
= Snails and conches with spiral shells.
= Leaf arrangement in plants.
= Deposition of wall material on cell walls.
= Child birth among mammals.
= Air entering and leaving the nostrils.
= Climbers and twines.
= Flower parts.
= Energy flow in the living organism.
= Planetary and celestial bodies with spiral or helical *
= Hurricanes and tornadoes.
= Flowing water, rivers, oceans, currents etc.
are cycles wherein the duration is so long that it is humanly *
to measure or follow the process. For example, the Pole *
is said to be at a distance of 200 light years. Light traveling *
a speed of 300.000 Km. per second, if it takes 200 years to reach *
planet, this distance can be mathematically calculated, but no *
being could verify this.
sunlight that takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds to reach us, maintains
distance which cannot be verified otherwise. Speculation again *
the sun's orbit at 25.000 years for one turn. Fractions *
this duration may be compared to the lifetime of one individual. *
then a day may decide many processes significantly. This is
value added to the spiral process; since the benefit is
the accumulated virtues. Vicious circles lead one from one process *
another process and once again to the initial one, repeatedly. *
we are conscious of the added value, every virtue can be counted *
turn vices into virtues. When such process expands in space and *
a virtuous spiral is the result. Recognizing the positive aspects
each one (or still better, not recognizing the negative aspects of *
one) this spiral will constitute a formidable milestone in the *
of humanity. Discipline, both personal and collective, common *
and freedom, should lead to efficiency and creativity. This *
growth should have been the indicator for development or
of discipline, when dictatorship steps in, inefficiency is *
result. So also instead of freedom for abuse creativity is lost *
the prevailing imitation. This vicious circle is difficult to *
unless, individually, efforts are made to improve on virtues.
this reflection, each reader is invited to evolve such spiral *
This is the hope for humanity.
lifestyle, purity at heart, a calm and quiet mind, are some *
the basic virtues of a scientist, an artist, or a humanitarian.
qualities are possible through sustained discipline at personal *
with sufficient freedom to think, work and express. When human *
being is maintained as a single goal, two basic principles are *
means to attain such objective:
= 1) First of all,. do no harm.
= 2) Human values above other values.
= THE RESCUE OF TRADITIONAL WISDOM ON HEALTH :<R>*
MATTER OF SURVIVAL
we approach the end of the millennium within this decade, modern *
has been describing an ever increasing number of disease *
well as causative factors of these in either genes, viruses,
or other exogenous organisms beyond the individual. But in spite *
all the resources and energy spent, results have not been
have not been able to cure diseases; in fact, so far *
have failed miserably to achieve their goal at the same time *
opportunities to Nutraceuticals and phytoceutricals.
the other hand present day living and eating habits with frequent *
residues have caused damage to the human genetic material itself.
damage is too heavy. If left to continue as such within about *
generations (say, about 50 years ahead), about 98% of humanity *
collapse permitting hardly 2% of the world population to survive,
most of this being in the tropics.
view of this deterioration of the state of health, questions have *
raised repeatedly about the need to change the basic concepts *
health care and search for alternative systems.
the fact that the tropical region houses about 80% of *
natural resources, 80% of the present day world population and *
of traditional knowledge about the use of these resources, a *
in basic concepts should help us avail ourselves of such a *
setting to enhance human well-being in the planet.
health education should receive priority and this should, *
a matter of urgency, include clear cut guidelines regarding food *
nutrition, drinking water, air to breathe along with flora and *
available for proper use. In so doing, many people may have *
change their way of thinking, food and living habits to prevent *
and pursue well-being and integral health.
is a wealth of traditional know-how regarding the effective *
of natural resources for proper nutrition, effective cure *
other similar purposes. In order to benefit from this knowledge *
that is required is to abandon modern concepts - normally developed
which have done enormous damage to the wealth of traditional *
= Fragmenting of human body and applying terms such as *
organs, tissues and cells.
= Learning from dead bodies some static facts and extending *
same to living dynamic processes, the organism.
= Insisting on "discovering" genes, viruses, microbes and *
pathogens as causative agents of diseases.
= Treating diseases and symptoms using aggressive methods *
= Isolating "active principles" from natural resources, *
basic information from traditional knowledge.
= Prescribing such principles in crystalline form or
chemical substances in laboratories, generally combining *
= Disregarding the "side effects" produced by this kind *
of the former, new concepts should be established in tune *
the traditional usage such as:
= Full vitality is the expression of health and only by *
and maintaining that vitality we are able to prevent diseases
= Treat the human being as a whole - body, mind and soul *
as a spirally extended dynamic biological process.
= Treat the person and the cause, and symptoms will
= Responsibility to take care of and to maintain good health
negligence leading to sickness is an individual affair, others *
do nothing about it.
= When necessary, for medicinal purposes, use natural
full (forget about the "active principle" stuff), as recommended *
= Use natural resources in the combinations and the manner *
by traditional methods including infusions, baths, extracts, *
inhalations, applications, etc.
= Traditional recommendations regarding the time of
natural resources, mode of preparation, treatments should be
external factors like lunar phases, seasonal exigencies, "Sunday *
= Food and living habits should be observed as per
maintain harmony with traditional wisdom or, at least, when remedies
= In the traditional systems treatments are individually *
in a way that patient is active participant in getting cured *
that illness does not recur nor leave side effects of any kind.
"placing of hands", healing rituals, etc., are resorted to *
various traditions. Just because we do not understand them or are *
to explain them in our jargon or value system, we should not *
such traditional wisdom. The capacity of folk wisdom should *
be underestimated either for diagnosis or treatment. Diverse *
healers have their own particular methods, often beyond *
mental framework or formative limitations. Such methods normally *
specific diet restrictions. In almost all traditional systems
is one of the most important aspects.
and common sense should be applied to decide the most adequate *
habits. The anatomical and physiological limitations of human *
structurally and functionally permit a capacity to ingest, digest,
and eliminate the toxic residue produced using plant resources *
Of course, as a child one is to be fed with breast milk during *
first two years, and possibly for a few more years; one may opt *
any other mammalian milk in that situation such as that of cow, *
exuberance and abundance of plant resources in the tropics should *
taken into account to assure sufficient raw material to meet the *
of every body around the world, whether it is for food, shelter, *
medicine or recreation.
the other hand, when there are known toxic substances in such plant *
one should avoid by all means these resources for internal *
This is the case with products like soy beans, tomatoes, *
cocoa, coffee, tea, guarana, mate, chilies, tobacco and *
known drugs and alcohol. Traditional wisdom again must be considered
= Soy bean:
The traditional sparing use of this legume *
limited to prolonged fermentation products, such as miso in the *
East. Now in the modern market there are about 6,400 soy bean *
promoted through vigorous propaganda techniques around the *
Even if it is food on many accounts, just because of the presence
high concentrations of the "Trypsin inhibitory factor" (TIF for *
resistant to high temperatures, soy bean and its derivatives *
dangerous health hazards. TIF inhibits pancreatic activity; *
proteins carbohydrates, lipids, etc., are not digested properly
the digestive tract. Again the insulin when its production quantity *
quality get effected may lead to alterations in blood sugar levels. *
fed with soy milk formulae are unable to assimilate micro
for the development of the normal endocrine system. *
retarded endocrine system may lead to anemia and sterility, which *
be both permanent and incurable.
= Tomato: Tomatoes
were introduced to Europe from Mexico *
mistaken identity. In Mexico the fruits of one species of
consumed even today under the common name "tomatl" in the fields *
corn or along with tomatl another plant grew as a weed with smaller *
known as "miltomate" assigned to a species of
pertaining to the same family Solanaceae as the former one. The *
of both are very much similar. Those who carried the seeds mistook
for the other and the confusion resulted in introducing tomatoes *
Europe, especially to Italy and France where the original name *
de mor" (meaning the apple of the Moor), became "pom de amor" *
love's apple!), attributing aphrodisiac properties to the *
in order to popularize its use among the high society. This *
led to the introduction of tomatoes and later on its easy *
made it an "ideal laboratory plant" for studies. Many *
were made to obtain larger fruits of better size and *
In nature no bird is known to eat tomato fruits. During
marketing etc., toxic agrochemicals are required *
industrially used. Even organically grown tomato fruits contain *
amount of lead, oxalic acid and uric acid in the cytoplasm.
consumption of these fruits in any form may cause lead *
("saturnism" or heavy metal poisoning), anemia, vesicular *
kidney stones and uric acid crystal deposits at various parts of *
body causing piercing pains known as arthritis or rheumatism, *
are not eaten by birds in Nature. Fruits do not ripen in *
tree. A few days after the harvest, when kept covered with straw *
paper, the fruits start ripening but their cell division continues *
one consumes the pulp. Unlike other fruits, avocados contain *
unsaturated fatty acids (so far about 34 are known). These *
mix liberally with the consumed food to form an emulsion *
at the stomach. When this emulsion passes through duodenum food *
is not capable of performing its normal function of absorbing *
cholesterol from the liver secreted through bile since it is *
emulsified. This phenomenon leads to retention of body
the vesicle or even regression to the blood stream. The toxic
with other saturated fatty acids is known to cause atheroma *
to several cardiovascular diseases. The liver cells get
is as toxic as any other alkaloid. Several plant products *
caffeine in significant quantities. Coffee, tea, cocoa
mate, etc., all contain caffeine. Caffeine is added to several
drinks too. Chlorogenic acid present in coffee is a stomach *
and may cause damage to the mucous membrane. Caffeine is *
powerful vasoconstrictor. As such all the blood vessels get affected *
reduction of their lumen, thus increasing arterial blood pressure. *
process may damage liver, heart, brain, kidneys, pancreas and *
as well. The reduction of blood flow to the brain may cause *
hallucination, restlessness and loss of hunger. This effect
caffeine has made it popular around the world and the commercial *
of this situation is understandable. The adverse effect *
the health of the consumer is not taken into account. Caffeine *
may cause mutations at the chromosomal level.
alkaloids like theine or theobromine present in tea or cocoa *
known to cause damage at several levels. For example, theobromine *
known to neutralize serotonine, the known precursor of endorphines, *
are in turn indispensable for stress relief and calmness. Nickel *
from the soil is deposited in cocoa bean and this metal on *
in the fatty layers of the brain may cause memory loss *
to "Alzheimer's" disease.
the indigenous people chew the pulp of the cocoa fruit *
discard the seeds. On ceremonial occasions alone such drinks as *
were consumed in a limited quantity, especially by the *
or medicine man. Modern civilization has abused cocoa
again, commercial interest prevailed upon health care interest.
tea preparations contain significant amount (about 10 ppm) *
lead. When consumed may cause saturnism.
or cayenne pepper is hot and pungent to taste due to the
several caustic substances. When consumed they irritate the mucous *
and may cause ulcers along the digestive tract.
fatal effects on health are already too well known. The *
is found to consist of more than 4,000 chemically identifiable *
of which about 50 have outright cancerigen properties. *
its mercantilization for wide social use, tobacco leaves were *
to be consumed by shamans only during ceremonial rituals. *
smoking is a modern habit, especially in the so-called *
countries; that too taking into account only economic gains,
health hazards. The genetic damage to the unborn babies *
never be rectified with all the money in the world.
are plant products, be the sources roots, shoots, leaves,
fruits, juices or other derivatives, when they undergo
subsequent distillation alcohol is obtained industrially. Alcohol *
not a food item, not a medicine. Alcohol will never quench thirst *
Alcohol consumption is widespread among rich and poor. Alcohol *
a vasodilator. The peripheral blood vessels increase in volume *
large quantities of blood so that blood flow to the brain *
reduced causing hallucination and loss of memory. Alcohols destroy
Living cells die, liver cells harden, walls of blood vessels
elasticity and harden damaging even the heart muscles. All the *
of the body get affected proportionately but the damage caused *
the gonads reflect in the offspring. Children born of alcoholic *
present mental retardation, about 20% in the first generation. *
may reach 100% in just four or more generations even when nobody *
consumes a single drop of alcohol again!
of diverse kinds harm humanity directly or indirectly damaging *
the offspring through altered genetic materials inherited from *
with consequences impossible to cure. Artificial colours and *
are likewise harmful to human health. Many are known to cause *
at cell or tissue levels. The action, reaction, interaction *
final effects of all these products are not fully understood. *
reaction to all types of vaccines and the residual long range *
from them are also yet to be fully realized. When human *
finally comes to realize the effects of all these toxic substances
feel sorry for what has been done, but then it may be too late.
oils used for deep frying is yet another dangerous item *
the diet of millions around the world everyday. These oils, when *
to boiling point, get chemically altered becoming extremely *
and unfit for human consumption. Margarine is the worst *
ever invented, item used in food. Chemically it is plastic *
hence it will never disintegrate in Nature; it contains chemicals *
are hard to digest. It leaves residues in the cardiovascular *
blocking the lumen and hard to eliminate.
occurring plant products contain many nutrients. Sugar cane *
a tropical crop with many nutrients. The concentrated juice attracts
and microbes precisely for this reason. In order to maintain *
commercial product in storage for long periods "refining" is
by adding more toxic substances for bleaching rendering the product *
even for insects and microbes! When consumed by human beings *
refined sugar causes damage to the mucous membrane and acidifies *
blood. The acidified blood removes calcium deposits from the bones *
teeth and may end up with osteoporosis. Sugar consumption thus *
several body functions and hence is dangerous.
cereals are rich in nutrients. Again for commercial purposes, *
is refined to avoid deterioration in the store and enhance financial
But refined flour or its derivatives, such as pastas, biscuits
crackers are, just like sugar, pure carbohydrates and unsafe for *
or packaging industry came to exist in regions where the
vegetables and fruits was scarce around the year due to adverse *
conditions. While doing so vegetables and some fruits are *
and drained, artificial colours, flavours or other chemicals *
to preserve. In this process the water soluble vitamins - Vit. *
and C get dissolved in the water used for cooking and while draining *
discarded. In the tropics, however, where vegetables and fruits *
available fresh all round the year, there is no need to preserve *
can or tin. The modern transportation and communication facilities *
these vegetable products from the tropics to the rest of *
world on daily basis and hence nowadays there is no need for such *
anywhere in the world.
any health care system, the sick should get proper attention
their food habits, hygiene and rest. All attempts should *
made to provide them with the basic requirements, health programmes
change their conceptual approach whenever necessary to understand
to reincorporate traditional systems in to modern life style. *
doing so we should be prepared to discard useless or incoherent *
prevalent in the modern society. Such measure may be vital *
ensure the very survival of human civilization.
products such as eggs, cheese, fish, poultry and meat of any *
all are dangerous and harmful for human consumption. Any animal *
is unfit a food. Neither the anatomical structure nor the *
function of the human body is apt for use of these
food. There is not a single mechanism to ingest, digest, utilize *
eliminate the toxic residues produced during the process.
proteins suffer putrefaction in the human digestive system, *
prolonged retention within replace the normal intestinal flora *
the ascending colon. This in turn may cause immune deficiency *
lower vitamin input from the intestinal flora. Blood gets acidified
to the depletion of minerals, especially calcium from the *
to compensate the higher levels of acid so that delicate organs *
the brain and heart do not suffer. This extraction of calcium *
continues for long will lead to osteoporosis.
body has no mechanism to store excess of animal protein but *
be eliminated through the kidneys on a daily basis causing *
for these organs. The immune system reacts sharply against *
foreign protein, especially animal protein, known as tissue
in organ transplants. Saturated fat associated with the animal *
gets deposited in the human body below the skin or along the *
walls of the blood vessels blocking the same in the long run. *
antibiotics, residues of vaccines, etc., present in the *
protein play havoc with the human body proportionately.
demographic explosion, about which so much has been said, is a *
The commercial lobby has raised this myth and has managed to *
the same through decades. What has happened is an increase *
the consumer population and a decrease in the availability of basic *
whole and healthy and able producers conscious about the *
If only we would all turn into producers as much as possible *
our own consumption, the problem should be solved. The world can *
much more healthy population if all the inhabitants become *
- producers and consumers at the same time.
= 1. Some Key Considerations Concerning Medicinal Plants.
identification for purposes of food and medicine should depend *
on local practice than on universally-standardized "scientific *
The confusion, even among specialists, regarding the correct *
of International Codes of Botanical Nomenclature, with *
should be avoided at all times for database collection
effective communication. The common names used in one context *
denote different plant materials or several names for one and *
same plant. Thus, local databases should be given more importance.
far not a single product in its totality has been chemically
that is impossible to accomplish, even with all the available *
Harping on active principle and specific pharmaceutical *
nutritional targets remain as reductionist concepts whether in *
or medicine. Use of integral plant product should be encouraged *
laid down in authentic tradition-al systems.
living organism will have to be considered as a spiral,
process, limited in time and space and for all practical
be treated as a whole without being fragmented into systems, *
tissues and cells.
of organisms should be considered as an expression of *
vitality permitting proliferation of cytoplasmic bacteria. *
latter, under normal alkaline conditions, remain latent, but become
when their media turns acidic. Upon the consumption of cell *
the hosted bacteria invade the entire cytoplasm. This is *
as "infection", and when no nutrients are available bacteria *
turn lose their vitality. At this moment bacteriophages-viral
in turn so far have remained latent within each bacterial cell, *
active. Once bacterial destruction takes place, viral particles *
succumb and the substrate becomes acidic, in a reaction suitable *
fungal growth. Other endo or ectoparasites may get incorporated. *
process clearly indicates that pathogenesis in living organisms *
coherently and easily understood. This knowledge permits to *
why antibiotics are becoming less and less effective, while *
organisms are becoming more and more resistant. Once the vitality
any organism is increased, all the pathogens get under control. *
purpose of health seekers should be directed towards this aim. *
consuming natural products vitality may be recovered in due course, *
by Mother Nature.
situ <F255P255D>conservation of plants has several
locally available information in association with the wild
the specific plant resource may be conserved as a type specimen. *
for large scale exploitation <F14P11MI>ex situ<F255P255D>,
be developed to preserve the specific type specimen. Perhaps the *
population may be alerted as to the importance of such specimen *
that they maintain the safety of this resource, thus protecting *
gene pool and conservation of endangered specifies.
contents and properties of plant products, vary depending on *
factors like: time of collection, substrate where it grows, *
conditions, manner in which the sample is collected and *
plant associations and communities, etc. As said earlier, *
is significant to note that there doesn't exist the capability *
analyze chemically not a single plant.
therapeutic systems have focused in reductionist techniques *
for handling of patients. Unfortunately, today even the common *
in modern days has learnt to fraction the process into minute *
units based on symptoms. The specialists also refer to fragmented
or tissues, and treatment is based on pharmaceutical products *
turn using active principles with specific targets. Inherently *
organisms and natural pro-ducts both get reduced to
objects. The side effects produced by the active principle *
excipient used with it, or the action, reaction and interaction *
the whole organism are not considered or, when considered, overlooked
it belongs to someone else's specialty. The patient is the one *
suffers and bears the consequences of this short-sighted and
Contradictory paradigms or confusing concepts should be *
or modified in favour of inherently holistic dynamic natural *
This model is presented for discussion. If accepted, it may *
for the next century.
= 2. Present Day Crisis
highly significant trend has been a blind imitation of life style, *
and living habits of the people from non-tropical regions in the *
areas disregarding the climatic, edaphic and biotic factors *
these latitudes. Consequently, the disharmony and incongruence *
many customs and habits among the modern tropical populations become
On the other hand, the traditional wisdom compatible with *
environment through ages, has been relegated to the last column, *
all together forgotten, favoring the "modern" trend, generally *
= For example:
= Food habits and food technology.
= Life style in accordance with the four seasons (generally *
seen in the tropics).
= Dressing habits.
= Obsolete and ambiguous concepts and methodology in
and technology, transport and communication, administration, *
= Use and abuse of energy.
= Energy consuming, contaminating, industrial development.
= Economic, social, political and other systems.
= This chaos has been responsible for the present day crisis
with the crisis, the genetic degeneration due to harmful
use during the last 75 years, is leading to the extinction of human *
from the planet. The "empty cradle" syndrome in many European *
should be an eye opener for the rest of the world not to *
this system any more.
the damages already implanted in the world should be redeemed. *
Why? When? By whom? Are questions to be answered.
estimated 67% of the world population has been genetically damaged *
far. Of the rest, 31% which is partially affected may be recovered *
one more generation if only careful measures are taken
it is, only 2% of the remaining population is apparently undamaged, *
of this small fraction distributed widely in the tropics around *
world. Even this fraction is threatened by the industrial pollution,
perhaps may get through the tough situation once the whole system *
intelligence around the world should think, discuss among themselves
work silently to the extent possible to save the human race from *
extinction in such a short time.
= 3. The need of Effective and Efficient Systems
any nation, the government is the highest authority to protect *
interest of the citizens. The sovereign obligation requires
practice of effective and efficient systems in all aspects,
health and education.
the ever increasing health problems of peoples, day by *
in spite of constant addition of hundreds and thousands of doctors,
hospitals, clinical laboratories, pharmacies, pharmaceutical *
health care systems, social security and insurance companies *
the difficulty of people to pay the high cost of modern *
and the poor attention they get, in addition to untold
existing official systems should be declared
inefficient, especially in the following aspects:
= Ignorance of causes for many symptoms commonly designated *
"idiopathic" or "cryptogenic" diseases.
= Focusing on symptoms and description of pathology without *
preventive systems of orientation.
= Chemical resources with side effects are the bases for *
= With no option for other methods of treatment or
= Higher onset of degenerative diseases in "advanced"
modern lifestyle is widely disseminated.
= The existing predominant official paradigm has no means *
under-stand fully the values of natural systems in other paradigms. *
for example, the dynamic components of natural products cannot *
analyzed with static scientific
methods, the totality of the process
never be understood by fragmenting the components. The official *
method (Cartesian) propagated blindly all over the world, *
failed to conduct comparative experiments due to the absence of *
totally comparable individuals (one meant for "control" and the *
for "experimentation") or not even two comparable moments in *
time units with reference to one dynamic living process, an *
pharmaceutical sciences are yet to synthesize any natural unit.
wide range of structural and functional variability of living *
should be interpreted as a dynamic universe with a
of dynamic, asymmetric, spiral, limited processes.
abundance of natural resources along with traditional systems *
by the native population forever to meet their requirements, *
contrasts well with all the limitations of a foreign
imitated blindly or imposed officially.
and freedom of each citizen, enshrined in official
select and pursue any specific system or paradigm for food,
faith, belief or thought, should be respected and safeguard *
is available of persons who suffered degenerative diseases at *
hands of conventional medical system once declared incurable, *
got completely cured with proper orientations and treatments in *
more natural way, at a relatively low cost, least sufferings and *
government should discuss and stimulate the conservation, promotion,
and extension of traditional natural systems.
= <P11B>Dr. Pallathadka Keshava Bhat<P255D>
= <MI>February, 1998<D>
= Presented at : "The Maloca Process" International Conference
Medicinal Plants. 16-19 February 1998, Bangalore, INDIA.
= POINTS TO PONDER
= Finest sentiment felt by any living organism touching *
subtler parts of the being. The expression is visible between *
mother - child, lover - loved, teacher - taught, limitless - limited *
human being, at sometime or another, passes through this experience
cannot be described by words; no object can represent this feeling.
it is abstract beyond any "proof" thereof, but heart-felt *
= That which is not contaminated, contaminable. That which *
immense does not get contaminated since no contamination is possible
limitlessness. The unlimited maintains purity by itself. Hence, *
is known as omnipresent.
= To wage war there should be opposition. When there is *
one all pervading, there is no need for war. There is peace. *
represents tranquillity. No motion at all. This motionless
the monument of peace. No duality.
= Unbound happiness that is eternal. Completely content *
satisfied beyond any doubt. Every particle is saturated with *
because that itself is delight. Every living being at sometime
another, in some place or another, has experienced this bliss. *
everyone is a particle of the whole. Or it may be said *
a particle of bliss is in everybody, just like a tiny particle *
a magnet that attracts.
= Compassion is the tender sentiment one expresses to *
living creature recognizing its finer vibrations. The expression
ground when a powerful one shows kindness to one without, or *
minimum or lesser power. Then the expression of every kind of *
on this biosphere-biodiversity.
= When a blossom blooms, a teenager giggles, a heart beats *
finest tunes, the morning breeze, warm feelings, and many such *
and phenomena have no translation in any language. It has *
be enjoyed. In order to enjoy such beauty, one should have finer *
For someone with prejudice or preconceived notions or *
from other quarters, beauty becomes a bur-den. Sometimes, *
beauty may become a real burden when other interests
beauty that lasts forever, that shines eternally that has no starting
and no known end point, that is beauty personified.
= Equilibrium between any duality. This requires perfect *
and the highest creativity. Efficiency is the expression *
to the discipline, whereas creativity is the expression *
liberty. Harmony is also mere expression of single pole or absence *
polarity. When the attention is not diverted but centered at one *
only pole then the maximum power is expression and hence omnipotent.
= Personified knowledge is omniscient, the one who is *
student at all but always a master. This one contrasts with the *
being, who is always a student, every instant discovering
about which he was ignorant until then.
= The conscience knows, feels, acts, perpetuates by
energy which has no attributes, not even a name, but is part *
each organism, the vitality itself, minute and all pervading, *
is a permanent witness of every conscious action, an absolute *
are some descriptions of that which pervades all attributes- *
born infants are known for their innocence and purity and this *
referred to as "divine".
individual has his or her own version of realization of the *
the absolute. This search has led to identity diverse gods *
= When one sheds the limits, the immensity is attained *
ease. The same process is favorable to dissolve the terrible, *
ego that maintains the ignorance. That is the real
to in texts.
mass-energy, are dualities commonly referred to by the *
science. If not another state is present, manifests not. The *
or mass may be mentioned as the
nature, which is the dynamic *
resources, changing every instant. Of course, constant change *
divine -never repeats the same. Energy, on the one hand, or mass, *
the other extreme, are two points, whereas when the interchangeable *
portion is reached, only gradation from one to the other is
close observation of this process and understanding its dynamic *
one can understand the basic concept of anything. That is *
is futile to interpret the process other than understanding it. *
need to repeat the same, not even for studies.
studying science, knowing the truth, learning the process, but *
in mind that at no time, at no place, the experiences repeat *
= To know the process is not sufficient.
= To have faith is not a crime.
= To feel the warmth is no weakness.
= To live in tune with Nature and natural things and a *
or spiritual life, is something one can choose and pursue with *
It is not beyond easy access.
= Dynamic Science merges with static-eternity.
= Vitality is the expression of this subtlety.
= According to the modern view, science satisfies the
and religion satisfies the internal (needs). Therefore, science
religion together should satisfy all the needs of the human being *
of hopes for a bright and prosperous future for the entire race. *
even more ideally, they should not have been separated in the *
place, because as ancient wisdom holds, they have always been *
of the same whole.
= Religion -to reunite- is a means to get all the humanity *
holding high the human values, irrespective of other values.
human virtues are: purity, love, harmony, efficiency etc.
= Any action in these lines is science, art and religion. *
THE MYTH OF BLOOD CIRCULATION
or transportation is a special process in every living being. The process
differs in vegetables and in animals. A single protoplasm with partial partition
through cell walls facilitates
in plants. At the same time increase in the volume of protoplasm is possible due
to meristematic activity all over the plant body. Only on special occasions
complete cell walls are laid down to separate protoplasm.
plant protoplasm has the capacity to incorporate water from the surroundings,
whether in the form of aqueous solution or water vapour, in order to make
available the same anywhere in the plant body. There is no need for conduction
or transportation through special channels. The organic discontinuity of the so
called conducting tissue does not permit an effective flow of liquids
(See Chapter V for further discussion).
the case of animals, with division of labour each cell is
independent and therefore, requires special mechanisms to transport energy,
gases, liquids and solids from one cell to another. This
flow of diverse components from place to place requires adequate
of transportation in every case. In the human body there are at least seven
patterns in the conduction of blood. Conventional concepts and information on
this subject are not correct, not even for the
process of blood vessels. It is also wrong to say that arteries carry pure blood
and that venous blood is impure.
living cell is bathed in lymph which serves as a liquid filter for all
substances which enter or come out of the protoplasm. The arterial capillaries
pour in the contents into the lymph. After
only the nutrients are allowed to enter the protoplasm and the metabolic
or products are received in the lymph. From here the blood or useful products
pass on to the venous capillaries whereas the toxic substances and the unused
nutrients are carried back into the arterial capillaries. The lymphocytes attack
the microbes or isolated cells and clean the system.
does not circulate but gets transported. Blood samples from two places of the
same organism are likely to be different in their composition. Blood is complex
due to the ingredients present in it. The nutrients from the digestive tract
enter the mucous membrane and then into the lymph from where they get into the
venous blood. Then the bloodstream carries the nutrients to each and very cell
of the organism for liberation of metabolic energy through phosphorylation.
During this process waste products are released which naturally get incorporated
into blood surrounding the cell.
adipose cells which serve for accumulation of fat, receive these residues from
the blood stream. The heavy metal residues also get deposited in this site, out
of the bloodstream in order to get rid of this "impurity". The
steroids and other such toxic wastes accumulated
cytoplasm attract liquid in an attempt to dilute these toxic wastes,
that the damage may be reduced. This process leads to an accumulation
body liquids combined with the waste material in each cell, thus increasing its
size. When all the cells increase in volume, the organ or organism is
voluminous. The meristematic cells receive nutrients and produce new cells in a
continuous manner and the newly formed cells (red blood cells and platelets)
from the bone marrow, get
into the blood-stream along with other metabolic wastes. The
cells of the gonads produce gametes for a limited duration in order to
participate in the reproduction to maintain the process of the perpetuation of
the species. The transportation mechanism of these cells differ in female and
ductless endocrine glands have different types of cells in each gland. Each
living cell receives nutrients like any other cell and functions actively so
that respective hormones are produced in addition
metabolic wastes, all of which should enter the bloodstream through the
cells where toxic wastes are removed from the bloodstream- lungs, kidneys, liver
and skin receive the arterial blood laden with toxic wastes of different kinds
-gaseous, mineral or other metabolic products.
venous blood from each of these organs returns devoid of these wastes. Toxic
wastes removed from the bloodstream have special
to be thrown out of the body in each case, either through the lungs (gaseous
substances), kidneys (urine), liver (bile) or skin (sweat).
to the available literature, only the oxygenation of the blood at the lungs is
considered as purification of the same. When elimination of toxic wastes through
other organs and tissues -skin, kidneys and liver, for example- is considered,
there should be a
of this concept.
process explains the total functioning of the human organism and the
indispensable interrelationship among the components of the body but the modern
science, with a tendency to super specialization has failed to understand.
human beings are considered to be rational ones, of late, even this capacity is
is a continuous rhythmic involuntary process of live
The vitality is expressed and enhanced by breathing. Although air is everywhere
in our planet its rhythmic stimulation alone can influence
vital movement. The inner linings of the nostrils provided with sensitive
receptive surface get stimulated by the fresh air on its entry. The action,
reaction, interaction with the living organism and finally the effect are all
factors to be reckoned with. So also the warm air going out of the nostrils
leaves behind some effect of its own.
diaphragm movement is capable of increasing or reducing the thoracic
in the regular fashion. For example when the diaphragm descends fresh air gushes
into the lungs and when the diaphragm ascends the lungs get pushed in order to
expel air from within. It is worth
that while diaphragm descends a vacuum is produced at the thoracic cavity thus
air gets sucked in. So also blood flows into the heart on one side and the blood
flows into the lungs. On the other hand, when diaphragm pushes up the thoracic
cavity which is filled up with gases gushing the same out of the nostrils. At
the same time blood also gets pumped into the aorta.
energy contained in the air and the stimulus produced at the
known as the vital energy moves all over like a ripple on water. On completion
of this wave all over the body a reverse movement occurs this time unless air is
expelled through the nostrils and the diaphragm
energy input gets reduced.
all times only 10% blood capillaries remain at work although they have to follow
a vital biorhythm. When more capillaries get open
of blood may occur somewhere in the body or the patient may enter into a coma
due to peripheral blood accumulation reducing blood to the brain. This is what
happens on persons with alcoholic drinks and therefore start talking
MOTHERS' WOMB : A PARADISE IN DISGUISE
womb provides loving care to the developing child during ten months. The liquid
protection-cum-nutrient solution is permanently in contact with the skin of the
body. The constant incubation
of 37 * is yet another comfort that has no comparison. The disposal
of toxic wastes is easily attained through the umbilical chord.
beware! This is also the place where destiny may be sealed forever!
food and living habits of the mother much before the baby is
play an important role in her own health and that of the baby in
and when the latter happens to be a baby girl, the destiny of the grandchildren
is determined all at once! This is "the grandmother's law".
the reduction division takes place in the foetus in development at the locus
corresponding to the future gonad of the organism, any mutagens available for
the nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm, may cause chromosomal alterations
leading to proportionate anomalies in the haploid cells resulting out of this
division. These cells are the precursors of ovules. Around the ovular mass,
protective tissues get differentiated, thus constituting the ovaries. Associated
with these organs, reproductive, as well as other type of organs, get
to establish a female embryo. When this baby becomes a girl, and later on, a
woman, the ovules in her ovaries are those that had chromosomal alterations.
sperms from a matching male may cause further damage which, in turn, are
products of meiosis in the gonads of that person.
is a live, dynamic energy releasing functional process in an organism. The
nutrients get reduced to the smallest particles which are incorporated into a
suitable conduction medium for an
transportation in order to reach the precise place of action in correct
and quality and be one with the protoplasm releasing energy and/or matter as and
when required, separate the waste products from the protoplasm to throw them out
of that gamut, but if useful, utilize them elsewhere or, when found toxic,
remove them from the body through adequate biological processes, at the first
living cell/organism exhibits tez, digestive process, perception of stimuli,
energy distribution/utilization and intelligence.
is a live dynamic structural unit of an organism that has all the necessary
organelles to receive the inputs, to process the incoming particles/stimulii, to
incorporate it into the system, to maintain, to repair any wear and tear, to
remove any toxic residues, to store up, if need be or get disintegrated.
live cytoplasm presents flexibility and agglutination, capacity for secretion of
fluids, ingestion of fluids, transportation through fluid media, protective
nucleus is a dynamic component that coordinates the vital movements
the organism within a limited area under its control.
nucleus gets divided into adequate units reducing the contents to their minimum
expression potential so that when two complementary units come in contact with
each other in space and time, a new
of nucleus is constituted which, when surrounded by other components expresses
as a new organism for perpetuation of the race.
vital movements coordinated by the nucleus include vibratory
neurotransmission messages, transportation, elastic movements as well as
peristaltic movements, in each cytoplasm/organism.
as a functional process; cytoplasm, as a structural unit; and nucleus, as a
coordinatory center, combined in a harmonious manner,
a limited space and time, with a specific mass, constitute an
This organism has an initial birth and a final death. The interval between these
two extremes is the existence.
or cytoplasmic alterations may occur any time from the moment
division takes place, until the instant the gametes come in contact
one another for fertilization.
alterations lead to the problems related to movements, such as: vibratory,
neurotransmission, transportation, sensory perception such as vision, elasticity
in the tissues, organs and systems, as well as peristaltic movements responsible
for the elimination of toxic wastes.
alterations lead to problems related to the protective liquids, transportation
liquids, digestive liquids, endocrine liquids and flexibility as well as
agglutination in the dynamic organism.
alterations lead to the problems associated with the
brilliance, the energy supply to each and every cell in the organism, the
brightness of the vision, the digestive fluids as tez in the dynamic
processes take place in both the gametes, either ovule or sperm. But when all
the three factors are altered, the cell can not function any more and hence it
dies or is beyond repair. This can happen when the cell is ready for
fertilization or soon after
when either gametes present partial but complementary defects.
are seven possible combinations with reference to each cell due to three factors
involved, the nucleus, cytoplasm and metabolism, either individually or in
pairs. (See tables)
the two components, ovule and sperm, come together and get
forty nine combinations occur, of which twelve get aborted at once due to faults
in all the three factors. Only one combination leads to a normal zygote. In the
resulting zygote, twenty one combinations present some form of alteration at the
level of the nucleus. Fifteen combinations present either metabolism or
cytoplasm altered to some degree or other.
process may be summarized in the adjoining table. The 98%
of the human race is evident from the table, since only one out of forty nine is
genetic disintegration of the human race may reach this percentage in about two
generations ahead. This may be estimated to occur in about fifty years or around
living and food habits of a modern consumer society, together with the
contamination of the biosphere, may be considered as internal and external
factors responsible for such destiny.
human species is the endangered one in all fairness to the details.
if the present day humanity takes urgent measures to rectify the errors
committed, it may be possible to rescue about 31% (fifteen out of forty nine
combinations) otherwise destined to destruction. This is possible only through
natural food and living habits, in harmony
the dynamic nature we live in.
means the rational use of natural resources such as sunlight, fresh air, fresh
water, good earth, flora and fauna.
is the responsibility of every one of us.
SEX DETERMINATION IN HUMAN BEINGS
of the earliest physical manifestations of sex in a human being may be observed
as early as the sixth week of pregnancy. Normally, the presence of external male
organs in between the things indicates the maleness and the absence of such
organs, the femaleness.
however, the internal sex related organs get established by this time.
the difference is significant. The presence of meiosis early in the
embroyogenesis leads to the establishment of two groups of haploid cells. These
are the cells that get differentiated in the embryo. The two groups get covered
by diploid cells constituting the ovaries. In between, the uterus and other
female sex organs get
The absence of meiosis, on the other hand, leads to the formation of precursor
cells awaiting meiosis, covered, in turn, by protective layers, later come to be
known as testicles. Other organs get
in due course. The onset of meiosis in the male body normally starts at his
puberty to produce sperms.
the early stages of embryogenesis, the nuclear division leading to the formation
of future ovules in a female body is of much
for the human race as such. These are the cells that should develop into ovules
for fecundation in due course when the time comes.
food and living habits of the pregnant woman, at this stage, is a determining
factor in the quality of these cells. Any toxic residues available at the
cytoplasm while the nuclei are undergoing meiosis, may cause proportionate
alterations in the products, the very ovules of the future.
leads to one more possibility. Making available factors which promote or hinder
the meiotic process, the sex of the baby may be regulated as required by the
parents. It should be done during the first six weeks of pregnancy.
the health of the ovule at the time of ovulation is yet another
which can only be determined through proper food and living habits of the mother
to be, at the instant when her own mother, at the time of her conception, was
keeping good living and food habits, congenial to the quality of the nuclei of
quality of the sperm is determined by the general health of the father to be.
But specifically, the food and living habits in the preceding three months at
least 73 days are decisive to the quality and quantity of the sperms. Even
slight temperature (say 38. 5 * c) at the scrotum, should be sufficient to
destroy the sperms or cells in meiotic division leading to their formation.
both parents are on a special food and living habits, congenial to the formation
of healthy gametes, the fusion pro-duct, the embryo, has better chances of
developing into a healthy child, the citizen of tomorrow.
THE ENERGY FIELD
vital energy incorporated at the time of gametic union, soon
an energy field within the embryo sac. This energy field has spiral movements.
The frequency of vibrations varies from place to place to complete the field
depicting an infinite symbol in three dimensions on a single plane.
The first center
(5.800 A *
The second "
(6.500 A * " )
The third "
(6.000 A * " )
The fourth "
(4.700 A * " )
The fifth "
(4.100 A * " )
The sixth "
(4.300 A * " )
The seventh "
(5.200 A * " )
The spirally flowing energy completes the field by meeting the starting
point after the entire orbit, forming an energy pattern. This pattern engenders
maleness whereas energy flow in the reverse direction differentiates into
energy field, once established is active throughout in a specific pattern. It
receives fresh stimulus with every ventilation.
this energy is maintained properly in its own field, every process
established in a given pattern - the organs differentiation.
types of energy: Four levels during differentiation. A field of energy is
established -the primordial spiral. (See Drawing)
a) Organ differentiation into anatomical organization to distinguish
different (5) sense organs and (5) motor organs by deposition of cells and
tissues at definite energy centers.
b) The energy spiral remnant presents two portions:
i) The polarity-duality; in-out; left-right; above-below.
ii) The "unemployed" remnant - subtle energy spiral.
primordial spiral vibrates and the particles get deposited along the energy
field to constitute a cell and these cells, in turn, get deposited along the
spiral energy field to form an organism. Along the energy field, different
specialized cells, tissues and organs, get established simultaneously, in a
complementary manner, constituting
organism as a dynamic whole.
is interesting to note that the building blocks available at the time of this
synthesis in the form of nutrients, are of absolute
both in quantity and quality.
for example, by 21 days of pregnancy, the heart of the embryo gets
differentiated at, or in close association with the seventh center,
earlier. The concerned cells get differentiated in a unique pattern to
constitute the cardiac muscles, responding to the frequency
which this center vibrates. During this period, if at all there is any toxic
residue around, the cells may get altered. Their alignment
get affected both structurally and functionally.
either side of the sixth center, bilaterally symmetrical
occurs with distinct expressions, such as face and the back of the head, and the
left and right side features as well.
the fifth center, multilateral proliferations make room for the complex brain
and associated tissues constituting the head.
fourth center constitutes a complex canal system associated with additional
organs at the throat.
third center is associated with gonads and organs around that area.
second center conforms to the perineal area, where the energy flow experiences a
first center corresponds to the navel region, the umbilical chord representing
the connection between the two successive generations.
diaphragm divides the body cavity into two halves, the thoracic cavity on the
one side and the viscera on the other. The rhythmic contraction and relaxation
movement exerts proportionate reaction on either direction. The lungs and heart
serve to distribute air and blood all over the body. The viscera serves to
process the food and separation of toxic wastes through respective specialized
organs after having incorporated precious nutrients into the system.
within the amniotic sac in the nutritive fluid, the developing
absorbs the nutrients through the skin entering the veins and thus the
peripheral veins carry the nutrients to the rest of the body. The arteries carry
the blood to the cells and tissues for their use and, as a consequence, the
toxic products get eliminated through
organs in the course of time. Some of these blood vessels, capillaries,
or arteries may get dried up while some remain for longer time. Therefore, the
blood vessels at birth may have a different distribution
that originally developed. Fresh vascularization is possible in the newly formed
cells and tissues owing to differentiation
in situ whenever required.
This is often the case with neoplasia or fibromas.
any moment, hardly 10% of the blood capillaries remain open. The rest closed.
Alterations in the capillary walls may cause proportionate
is a constant disintegration due to wear and tear as well as integration. While
the integration is more significant than the
there is growth and expansion; when disintegration is greater than integration
the deterioration is more. The loss of vitality is
and when it reaches its lowest level, the onset of death is imminent.
>> 60 millivolts
>> 6-10 millivolts
heteromorphic bodies bacteria
according to the
pulse rate per 24 seconds:
24 seconds 56
2 yrs. 44
2 yrs. 3
yrs. 40 "
3 yrs. 7
yrs. 36 "
7 yrs. 14
17 THE UNLIMITED
IN THE LIMITED BODY
animal by birth, after ten lunar months as pregnancy, is a flexible
born baby -capable of just sleeping and when hungry, crying. But while sucking
milk from the mother's breasts, the intestines evacuate the residues as if it
were a locomotive. The baby grows up thanks to the food consumed, air inhaled
and all round attention from others.
the puberty gets in enroute to teens and to young adult. The process of
degeneration proceeds faster than the capacity for repair and finally the body
dies and gets decayed.
lapse between birth and death is to be considered as a limited time and space
opportunity, equal for everybody. But individual capacity
limited, no one is equal to another. This is the biodiversity in its full
body comes to exist thanks to the food consumed by the parents, the food
consumed after birth, capacity of the body for repair,
at growth, elimination of toxic wastes, and other external and internal
Finally, this body gets degenerated, serving the microbes and worms with their
nutrients. This is the food body. A corpse is the perfect example of this body.
air one inhales includes water vapor, suspended particles, nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, monoxides and other contaminants. This air stimulates the
inhaler and the vitality increases. Once the terminals along the nasal cavity
get stimulated, the entire body responds to this indispensable ingredient of our
vital body has its own complexity invisible for the untrained eye, though its
role in movement of the body is evident. Not everybody
prepared to qualify for conscientious perception and perfection of this subtler
diaphragm movement causes expansion or contraction of the thoracic
responsible for the entry or exit of air in relation to the lungs so as for the
blood into the heart. The same diaphragm movement originates a wave of rhythmic
motion along the abdominal muscles, and the abdomen reacts accordingly. The wave
extends to the back of the neck and then to the head, thus covering the entire
is evident that the elimination of toxic wastes through the
canals is also promoted by this rhythmic pumping action initiated by the
diaphragm movement is normal in newborns, but later on, when maintained
unaltered, the benefits are maximum. If by chance, this habit has been abandoned
in due course, it is necessary to stabilize the diaphragm movement in youngsters
mental body, consisting of memory, reasoning, sentiments (including
thoughts, as well as sensory perceptions, maintains its capacity in close
association with other bodies.
individual ego has two faces experts may tend to designate as schizophrenic or
split personality to some extent. Internal and external
inward and outward or potent and extent, as the case may be.
one considers some qualifying characteristics, an obscure or shady ego may
contrast with a crystalline face. Ego, however is covered
all sides by three components: the yellow colored conscience, the blue colored
memory and the red colored reasoning capacity. Again, the sensory perception
(Audition, Touch, Vision, Taste and smell) as well as motor organs (voice box,
genitals, anus, hands and legs) are closely associated with reasoning and memory
with consciousness through emotions and/or sentiments.
positive sentiments (love, bliss, harmony, conviction, faith, compassion etc.)
as well as negative emotions (hatred, jealousy, anger,
unhappiness etc.) of diverse colour combinations, nurture the conscience, but
are closely associated with memory, on the one hand, and reasoning, sense
organs, motor organs, and also thoughts, on the other. Thoughts appear in waves
of diverse colours, intensities
retains all conscious actions and this "go down" may be kept neat or
cleaned up by appropriate practice. The practice of good eating
guarantees adequate nutrients in quality and quantity to the normal functioning
of the body. Correct breathing habits help regulate
diaphragm movement, just as that of any other voluntary or
muscles. Controlled breathing, on the other hand, is of use to regulate
flow of thoughts and the processing of them. Food for thought, when supplied at
optimum doses, can adjust the mental capacity,
the consciousness. When these three facets of the organism namely, the food
body, the breathing body, and the mental one are in harmonious
the inner self can vibrate at a special frequency. This vibration of the
intuitive body gives pleasures of diverse kind, leading
ecstasies or happiness. To attain such experience requires a lot of discipline,
but then in order to maintain it, the steady follow
this constant, dynamic process, the ego gets clearer and clearer; at the same
time, increases in size and strength, leading to a better generation.
is the linking force between science and religion, each with its own importance,
but together for the betterment of the human kind.
ANCIENT FIVE ELEMENTS
of water during hot summer winds, dries up the ponds, lakes and lagoons. The
water level in rivers touches new lows and at times, dries up altogether.
moment the evaporated particles dispersed in the atmosphere come close, they
become clouds through condensation. These clouds attain different shapes and
hues as they are carried away by air. Commonly, when the clouds are low and get
trapped by the mountain peaks and the temperature drops, the finer particles
come closer and constitute a droplet of water. Several such particles and
droplets form a drop of rainwater. When the cooling occurs suddenly and the
temperature drops below freezing point, icicles are formed. The rain moistens
the soil particles and makes a swamp. Excess water flows like a stream.
rivulet combined with other similar ones becomes a river and several tributaries
together constitute a river with its maximum
expressed at its estuary, where the river actually loses its identity by mixing
with the ocean.
particle of water loses its individuality at every step, but in combination and
cooperation with other similar particles it is even capable of forming an ocean!
declares the poet-
Love for hearts is like
Water for fertile soil particles
Seeded nurtured opportunities alike
Bumper harvests miracle articles.
Food consumed by living organisms gets digested and its nutrients are
incorporated into the food body, constituting each cell, tissue, organ etc. but
its identity is lost in the process.
entering through the nasal cavities or otherwise, gets incorporated
the breathing body, losing its identity.
from surroundings are perceived by the living organism through
sensory perceptions and these get incorporated to the mental body.
emotions and sentiments also get a place in the mental body.
vibrations get incorporated to the intuitive body, so that the physical, mental
and spiritual bodies can be considered one, as a whole.
consumed may be sensed and reacted to by any of the five bodies.
ingredient contributes to the quality and quantity of the product
is an organism but loses its identity as a unit. However, if the consumed
ingredient is inadequate, it may harm the rest of the systems at short, medium
or long range, proportionally damaging the organism as a whole.
(See Fig. 1)
seven musical notes, as such, may not mean anything. But when combined with a
sharp mind, that mind is capable of arranging millions of melodies. This music,
when interpreted by muscular vibrations of the vocal chords due to air passage,
together with energy derived from food, constitutes the complete symphony.
mental body develops ideas, composes the syllables and words along with the
musical set up. The physical body responds with the voice box and the necessary
energy for convenient functioning of the organism
a whole. The spiritual body experiences a subtle sensation called extasis, by
composing, singing or hearing such touching music.
therapeutical use of music has been practiced for ages, knowing fully well its
physical, mental or spiritual effects on the human being.
music gets synchronized with the body, mind and spirit, the
attain unison and one gets immersed in the process. Thus, a sound produced by
diverse musical instruments, gets incorporated into the human being and gets
lost over there, immersing the whole in the haven.
is where the physical world fuses with the mental world and the spiritual world,
to constitute a unique world of bliss.
particle is in constant change. An observer or actor, acts. For this action to
be dynamic, the actor should vibrate at the same frequency, lose his or her
identity and get immersed in the action. Then the act becomes memorable.
one understands this dynamic process, the natural law gets evident-
change. That is, the old order getting replaced by a new one. The reasonable
subject should not be carried away by either one, but simply watch the
transition. While so doing, enjoy this process, do not convert the dynamic whole
into fractions or reduce it to smaller
to be subjected to descriptions or models.
this way, within any natural process, the observer becomes part and parcel,
since he or she is a silent witness. The experience is beyond words in any
language but in a language of its own- that of a pure heart. A feeling, a finer
vibration or something.
Philosophy is to love knowledge.
Science is to know and do.
Religion is to feel and experience.
the four operations should be qualitative and quantitative.
all efforts to preserve unity among people, to improve work force, to
enrich the humanity with ideas, actions and words.
laziness, cheating, lies hatred and all such human weaknesses.
resources, good deeds, vegetables and fruits.
manual labour, workplace, harvest, time and space.
and heat flow at high speed.
air particles expand or contract and get displaced easily. Fluid water may cool
to form ice or evaporate to become vapor. Earth particles get agglutinated
thanks to the water particles. How about human feelings, emotions, sentiments,
echoes, thoughts, subtler
particles in vapor get cooled down and come together to form a water droplet and
hence, heavier. Many such droplets come together to precipitate raindrops. The
rain water percolates into subsoil and water springs out of the soil to flow
continuously establishing a river. Taste of the water is due to the dissolved
salts available in the soil where the water flows. All identity of the river
gets lost once the water reaches the oceans. The river serves through its
course, every one takes care to reach at it, fetch water in the kettle they
carry. By uniting with the immensity disappears its own identity.
subtraction, multiplication and division. All in one for all a river water's
* * (3+4+5+6) x (7+8+9+12+1) = 666.
can destroy. It is the devils' number.
2 = love; 10 = devotion; 11 = friendship
* * East at sunrise becomes west at sunset due to the
rotation of the planet. Exposure to sunlight during 12 hours of the day but the
12 hours of the night corresponds to the shadow of the planet.
one zodiac house corresponding to about 30 *
becomes invisible due to sunlight whereas the other 11 zodiac houses
become visible at night.
sky with visibility of 180 * remains
constant day and night, measurable with folded fist. Stand facing East holding
both hands fully stretched at shoulder level, indicating the horizon. Close left
hand fingers and hold vertically representing 10 * . The Pole Star is
visible at night in the northerly sky at a height corresponding to the latitude
where the observer is standing on the northern hemisphere. The dome can be
measured with fist one above the other. Nine is zenith on either side. East-West
direction is easy to make out once the Pole Star is located in the North. The
rotation movement of the planet exposes the observer to the night sky in the
following manner: at sunset six zodiac houses are visible, but their
distribution is not equidistant in the sky. Closer to the sunlight, more
constellations appear but, away from sunlight, the houses get extended. At
midnight, about nine constellations of the zodiac are visible with maximum
visibility. This equals to 270 * whereas
at sunset and sunrise six constellations cover about 210 *
from the spot where sun is visible.
(See last chapter)
map of the stars and constellations should be established based on this note.
All calculations in the East-West direction are bound to be erroneous.
* * Incident sunlight constantly illuminates the planet from one
side in the form of a cone. On equinoctial day, the planet gets illuminated
the tropical zone where both, North and South hemispheres, share equal sunlight.
Depending on the solstice, either north or south pole gets illuminated on such
days when the other pole is under darkness. Nevertheless, the tropical region of
the other hemisphere remains exposed to the sunlight. These rays heat up the
particles of air, water and soil and thus the light gets reflected at the same
time. When one portion of the atmosphere gets heated up, the other side of the
planet, as well as the region unexposed to sunlight, remains cool. The rays
originating from the northern hemisphere of the sun illuminate the southern
hemisphere of the earth whereas the light from the southern hemisphere of the
sun illuminates the northern
on the earth. This change continues forever since the rotation movement
the planet maintains the dynamism. The rapidity with which the air particles get
heated up and get expanded maintains an expansion proportionate to the heating
up. The cold air blows in and this causes the trade winds. When these tropical
adjustments occur with tremendous speed due to the helical movement of the
planet on its orbit, the wind speed reaches hurricane dimensions or may be
termed as tornadoes. The winds attain certain heights. When the planet is
considered along with the total atmosphere, these winds are closer to the solid
core (so far considered to be the earth) whereas the outer sheathing portion
as the ionosphere, remains heated up. The friction and the
radiation lead to further heating up of this layer. The natural
in local conditions are within the range of tolerance.
* * A person feels. Those feelings may be happy or sad.
This may be due to certain knowledge. On discovery of the truth one is happy.
information discovered is so terrible, that one would prefer not to know about
that. Again, one suffers because of knowledge which others refuse to know or
share or are unable to communicate. Ignorance of knowledge may be sorrowful.
Therefore, knowledge may be good or bad. Who knows! Knowledge has no value. The
added value is priceless!
* * Seven musical notes when arranged in a specific
sequence and rendered through instruments or vocally, music is created. The
quality and quantity of such notes is the factor determining the value of music.
The state of mind of the person who hears, or ability to hear, are other factors
to be considered.
like dance is enjoyed while execution of notes and moves. Mind the steps.
* * Five colours (black, colourless, red, yellow and blue)
when mixed in specific quantity produce particular hues and effects to create a
piece of art. The contents and message are good visual aids for ever, when it
touches the heart.
* * When pressed adequately, sugar cane yields cane juice
leaving the bagasse.
enjoy and appreciate the sweet juice. Others may be happy with the bagasse as
raw material for some kind of fine art. Yet, another may not like either of the
two. But there may be someone who would like the juice and the bagasse. Or even
one who ignores the whole story.
one who cultivates, the one who harvests, the one who crushes the sugar cane all
get job and benefit.
* * When milk and Lactobacilus
bulgarus come together, the
bacteria consume the protein in the milk forming curd or yogourt. By churning
this yogourt, one can get butter and butter milk. Both pro-ducts are good.
lemon juice is added to the milk, it breaks down into whey and some kind of
cheese, where whey may be good and cheese may be bad enough since cheese
represents coagulated protein.
honey is added to milk, it becomes a nice drink and it is a light laxative too.
one fruit is divided by one cut, we get two parts: by dividing twice, the result
may be three or four parts; by dividing thrice, we may get four, six or eight
parts. Each portion may contain different
and one quality. If you consume one by no more parts remain.
* * All have the same opportunity and are equal.
do not have the same capacity and are unequal.
One opportunity should not be compared with one capacity. Capacity may
change; opportunity may never strike again.
* * A point is said to possess no dimensions. A point has
of the very ancient literatures available is known as Vedas. There appears a
stanza describing nine deities in directional sequence. For example, East
Northwest South Southwest Centre Northeast North Southeast and West.
a figure is drawn and numbers are written in corresponding places, a magic
square is produced. In this magic square, the sums are identical
all directions, whether vertical, horizontal or diagonal numbers.
this order, even in a reverse sequence magic squares may be obtained.
* * (See Multiplication Table on page.....)
(4 4) (4 + 4) = 0
44 = 0
4 +4 = 0
(4 4) + 4
4 = 1 4
44 = 1
4 4) + (4
4) = 2
(4 + 4 + 4) 4 = 3
(4 4) 4 + 4 = 4
(4 x 4) + 4
4 + 4
4 = 6
4 x 4 + 4
4 + 4 + 4 = 9
4 + 4 +4
* * 12345679 x 9
= 111 111
x 18 = 222 222 222
x 27 = 333 333 333
x 36 = 444 444 444
x 45 = 555 555 555
x 54 = 666 666 666
x 63 = 777 777 777
x 72 = 888 888 888
x 81 = 999 999 999
* * 09 x 1 = 09
x 2 = 18
x 3 = 27
x 4 = 36
x 5 = 45
x 6 = 54
x 7 = 63
x 8 = 72
x 9 = 81
x 10 = 90
* * One house has four roofs with identical surface areas
to hold certain number of entire tiles. There is no need to divide tiles
anytime. Each time a person climbs on the roof top, the quantity of tiles he
carries gets doubled automatically. If he has to leave the fourth roof with no
more tiles left, how many tiles he should carry up the first roof? How many
tiles he should mount on each roof?
the answer without writing on any form -blackboard, paper etc.
* * 1/7 = 0.142857 142857
= 0.285714 285714
= 0.428571 428571
= 0.571428 571428
= 0.714285 714285
714285 <%2> <%0>
= 0.857142 857142
In any process or phenomenon, action,
reaction, interaction and final effect are all factors to be considered
before arriving at conclusions.
minus one need not be zero.
yogourt minus one butter leaves one buttermilk yet in the cup.
one sugar cane one juice is extracted still leaving one bagasse...
* * Numbers represent mathematical units to express
value of such units remains unknown. Such abstract impressions serve to
communicate in numbers the quantity of objects in question.
* * However, when one unit is divided once, this unit gets
cut into two units, maybe similar or dissimilar. When one unit is divided twice
the same gets cut into three or four smaller units similar or
as the case may be. This process continues resulting in multiplication of units;
while two units are similar they may not be identical nor qualitatively
comparable. In this case, one is not similar to another in the strict sense and
therefore. One plus one need not to be two.
* * Or one unit when combined with the other unit may cause
an action, reaction or interaction between the two, one or both losing the
or quality. This process continues.
phenomenon continues to be complicated when something is removed from something
else. Once removed, perhaps it can never be put together
One minus one is not zero in this case.
quality of opportunities is taken into account, all are equal. Whereas when
individual capacity is considered one, it is never equal to another. Therefore,
qualitatively or capacity wise no two units are equal.
* * Each organism should be considered as a spiral,
asymmetric, unique, dynamic process limited in space and time. This process
should, in all perspectives, be considered as a whole without fractioning
and functionally. Individually birth, growth, maintenance, degeneration
death are different expressions, with
little or no possibilities of acknowledging the whole process,
known as states or phases without factors, such as edaphic, climatic and
biotic act upon the organism in diverse proportions.
biodiversity is the final expression or sum total of several factors
this dynamic nature. There is no possibility of any definite form in any
individual organism due to the inherent dynamism in each case. In our planet,
the tropical zone is rich in natural resources due to climatic factors highly
favourable for the exuberant expression of biodiversity. It has been estimated
that about 80% of biodiversity is located in the tropical zone. A similar
proportion of world
is located in the "tropical belt". However, the 20% of world peoples
living in the non-tropical regions, consume about 85% of the produce, leaving
15% available to the tropical regions. This situation leads to a new competition
and an effective impact on the supply -demand sector.
* * Examples of suitable soft technology:
1. Activated Carbon.
hard shell of the coconut is a by product, while copra is extracted
oil production. The shell may be used as a cup or a kind of utensil.
has served as raw material to produce articles such as buttons, ashtrays, clips
and similar small items.
dry, there is an essential oil which serves to heal wounds on direct
application. Added to a soup while cooking, this essential oil gets mixed with
the liquid and hence, by sipping the soup, peptic ulcers get cured. The shell is
washed and dried to set on fire so the red hot burning coal is formed. At this
stage, the shell expands with cracks when it is dipped in cold water so that the
charcoal is obtained. This charcoal is washed several times and sun-dried. The
dry charcoal is raw material commonly known as "activated charcoal"
with wide applications.
burning charcoal produces high temperatures efficient even to liquefy gold. Each
gram of charcoal has 1.400m2 surface area for
This property renders multiple uses like water filters, absorb odours and
humidity, noxious gases, organic acids, essential oils and so on. Therefore
masks, pouches, filters and articles like those, that may be produced with high
efficiency and at low cost. It is an ideal clean technology.
2. Solar heater, cooker, oven.
the tropical region, the incident solar rays produce maximum heat. In the
northern hemisphere, the rays enter from the southern side whereas in the
southern hemisphere they enter from the northern side. Keeping in mind this
fact, devices may be set in order to
tilt the whole set up to get
maximum exposure to the incident sunlight any day.
heater consists of one absorbing surface, normally dark painted , a chamber to
protect the heat, a glass top to permit the entry of light but to protect the
chamber from rain and dust.
passing cloud, mist or rain may diminish intensity of heat.
basic unit may be described in brief: a double-walled box with glass top is all
that is needed. A black surface within the box serves to absorb the heat, still
improvable by using copper or aluminum plates. On the under surface of this
plate, a copper tube filled 70% with water and sealed may be affixed to maintain
uniform heating even during cloudy intervals. The glass top may be inclined to
drain off water, either due to rain or condensation of vapor from within. This
glass may be mounted on bushes, one cm. high along the side walls to make room
for the vapor to escape. In order to place some trays or cooking facilities,
some kind of wire net may constitute a rack. If necessary, a special door may be
devised to open and close the box without moving the fragile glass top.
climate of the world varies through the year following the annual movement of
the planet along its orbit. This orbit being a helical never ending process, all
that can be observed is a cyclic phenomenon. The partial illumination from one
side of the planet, especially with maximum effect along the tropical zone
throughout the year, but non tropical areas only for six months, heats up the
components. The air, water and earth respond in different manner the solar days.
get illuminated constituting light. But heat absorption and dispersion vary from
element to element. Only the sum total effect alone gets expressed. Air expands
enormously, water expands to some extent, while the soil particles least. The
evaporation of water by the solar rays holds key to the rainfall.
uneven heating up of the air produces the expansion of air. While hot air is
moving outwards, cold air moves in, thus raising trade winds. The direction of
this displacement is further determined by the spiral or helical displacement of
the planet and the friction produced in the process. The twisting effect is due
to the spiral orbit. The hurricanes and tornadoes are consequences of such
helical movements. By heating up the nucleus of the hurricane by reflecting
sunlight or focusing artificial light, the air expands to reduce the speed of
the same and consequently avoids damage to property and life.
west or north east rainfall follows the winds. The seasonal changes are
expressions of partial exposure to sunlight.
sunlight, water may be evaporated and then cooled down. When sea water is used,
sea salt may be obtained and potable water also as a product.
an infinite spiral tunnel:
reinterpretation of concepts about
place in the celestial dome.
work is an example of how to observe a dynamic natural process without prejudice
in order to understand the same. No instruments were used during this work. The
new scientific method proposed in our recent book ýEl Sentido de la Vida: Desde
el Embarazo hasta la Muerteţ (1994) has been put to practice as a demonstration
of its aplicability to understand this dynamic process, use logical reasoning
and arrive at obvious conclusions.
though these ideas were conceived earlier (In the book ýBasics of Natural
Health: Nature and human wellbeingţ, published in 1991,
where the inversion of the world and the location of all the planets on one side
of the sun are well documented), they became crystallized in the year 1995 at
the Ethnobotanical Garden ýChara Chakraţ, CumanĚ, Venezuela. Besides
the students of an intensive course on Holistic Life with whom the daily
observations were made and discussed, a young engineer, Luis Manuel Belmonte
(Jr.), who on repeated occasions visited me at the garden to hold fruitful
discussions with me, influenced decisively the idea of publishing this work for
the benefit of readers at large.
Fernando Jurado, a close collaborator of the garden right from its establishment
about 16 years ago, helped with the early illustrations of some of the concepts
proposed in this work. Ms. Marta Rosinach, a student at the intensive course,
took up the responsibility to render the illustrations in the present format,
and design the booklet.
every one of my friends who have given a supporting hand, I extend my sincere
thanks. However, the responsibility for the opinions expressed in the booklet is
entirely my own. If the readers enjoy and think from all viewpoints, part of the
aim will be attained. The other part shall be attained when the rest of the
world, and especially the experts, pass critical comments, and come up with more
accurate calculations in order to bring all the affected dominant theories to
reality so as to teach future generations a more objective and logical approach
to account for the dynamic process which we call Nature.
August 15, 1995
P. Keshava Bhat
Via tres picos, Cumana 6101
science and technology together constitute a bundle of isolated, not integrated
and undigested information on events and phenomena from diverse highly
heterogeneous sources through space and time. Therefore, they are not fully
reliable. A limited partial perception makes the collected data incomplete
(confined to audition, touch and vision). The dynamic natural processes, in
spite of being interpreted mechanically, have become highly lucrative.
it is high time to revise critically the concepts and methodology of modern
science and technology along with its hasty theoretical conclusions before
turning to the next millenium.
A logical reasoning should help to improve coherence, reliability and precision
in favour of a real science leading to human well being through adequate
knowledge and action.
conduct an intensive course for trainees in Holistic Life where about a dozen
people from various parts of Latin America and Caribbean Islands participated, I
had an opportunity to be again at the ýEthnobotanical Garden Chara Chakraţ in
CumanĚ, Venezuela, from March 11 till July 1, 1995. During this period a
systematic observation of Nature started at four in the morning and continued
till 21.30 at night. The natural phenomena observed included the moon and its
phases mainly to assist in agricultural practices like sowing and harvesting,
dawn and dusk, the clouds, the planets, the constellations, a solar eclipse,
shooting stars, stars, etc. Even artificial satellites were taken into
the observations were made with unaided eyes, that is, without instruments. The
general information from the available literature was sufficient to locate
different celestial bodies (identification and follow up). The following
information was noted down:
Equatorial diameter of the sunÝs disc:
One solar rotation: 26.8 terrestrial days. Herculean Velocity of the sun
along its orbit: 100 km/second.
Equatorial diameter of the earth:
Polar diameter: 12,713,83 km.
Rotation speed on its axis:
Time taken for one rotation:
23 h 56 min 4,091 sec.
Inclination of the axis:
23_ 27Ý 30ţ.
The mean distance of
earth from the sun:
(about 500 light sec.).
Time taken to move along
an elliptic orbit
around the sun:
365 days, 5 h, 48 m, 46 s.
see appendix for the proposed alternate values for these.
The moon is a natural satellite of the Earth with a diameter of 3.473 km and
maintains a distance of about 384.400 km; takes 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and
12 seconds to go round the earth but requires 29.53 days interval between full
moon and full moon.
one face of the moon is visible from the Earth.
following results were gathered from the daily observations:
The Polar star was seen all along the 108 days at the same place (Fig 20.1).
The visible planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) were located in
specific places and their movements followed every night (Fig 20.2).
The position and phases of the moon were noted down easily.
The coloured clouds, the twinkling stars, the solar eclipse on the evening of
Saturday the 29th of April 1995 were unrepeatable moments attesting to the
constant dynamism of Nature.
The known constellations: Great Bear, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Pisces, Aries,
Taurus, Gemini, Southern Cross... etc, were observed in their relative
The incident sunlight produced shadows of garden objects at different angles
Closer objects and their movements were more easily observed.Farther objects and
their movements were not easily observed.
the basis of all these data the following questions were posed:
The moon being a satellite why does it take 29.53 days for one lapse between
full moon and full moon, while the planet Earth (ýthe main bodyţ) completes
about 30 rotations on its axis?.And what about the daily changes in the position
and phases of the moon?.
Where is the shadow of the earth which is illuminated from one side alone?.
Does the polar star go round the elliptic heliocentric orbit of Earth?. (Since
time immemorial the polar star leads navigators in the northern hemisphere of
If the axis of the earth is inclined, four seasons should occur daily and the
polar star should move proportionately, but why is it that this is not observed
to be so?.
Why does the sun go round the 12 constellations (or zodiacs) in one year when
these constellations are extended at great distances in the space?.
6´ If all the planets move round the sun in
heliocentric orbits, some of them should not be seen during six months a year
while the earth is on the other side of the sun. But they were visible every
night. How can this be explained?.
Will not the sun moving at a velocity of 100 Km/sec dash against the earth when
it is on its elliptic orbit at 30 km/sec in front of the sunÝs path?.
In order to maintain an elliptic heliocentric orbit should not the earth exhibit
an acceleration deceleration mechanism?
Should not the limitless atmosphere of Earth, made up of gases, be extended as a
Gases like ozone should have decomposed into oxygen due to their low density,
exposure to cosmic rays, reduced pressure and low temperature. During day time
the ultraviolet rays reach the surface of the Earth causing among other things a
reaction in the human skin (production of vitamin D), it also helps the bees to
locate flowers. That means the ozone layer is present, or not, or may not have
any impact on the environment arround us. So where is
the question of concern about an ozone layer depletion?.
If sunlight falls vertically over the tropics and horizontally over the poles,
how can they enter the holes on the polar end?.
How do we explain the colour patterns at dawn and dusk?.
How far should we follow obsolete concepts in the name of modern science?.
Science can progress only with critical, logical reviews, especially
understanding the dynamic process of Nature.
Therefore, can we not take this collectively as another example of numerous
inaccuracies hiding our ignorance?.
conclusions in response to such questions, at least to some of them, may be
summarised as follows:
The planet Earth has three basic constituents: air, water and earth.
The planet Earth constantly receives light energy mainly from the sun.
Earth and the other planets do not go round the sun in heliocentric orbits. The
spiral orbit of the sun opens up a huge tunnel, the sun occupying the head of
the cone (Figs 20.3 and 20.4). The mass burnt up produces electro magnetic
radiation all over, a vacuum on one side and motion on the other. The suction
produced attracts all the planets in turn, each of them with a spiral
individual tunnel, maintaining a specific distance from the sun.
The polar axis of the planet Earth is not inclined. The rotation of earth on its
polar axis produces partial exposure of the tropics to the incident sunlight,
whereas the movement along the spiral tunnel of the earth extends as a torpedo
in an equatorial plane, causing the seasonal changes (Fig 20.6). When the planet
is at two sides of the spiral, the incident light illuminates the equator and
the tropics; whereas when the planet moves to the lower side of the spiral,
illumination occurs on the northern hemisphere or when the planet moves up the
spiral the sunlight illuminates the southern hemisphere, respectively. (Fig
20.7, 20.12, 20.13).
size of the conical expression may be calculated from the available data. The
sun is at the apex of the cone; the angle at the source of light is 23_ 27Ý
30ţ and the position of the planet along the spiral orbit makes the rest of the
seasonal changes at a constant distance of about 500 light sec from the sun
(149,597,.870 km); the speed of the earth along its spiral orbit is 11.85665
km/sec. (Fig 20.6).
The gaseous atmosphere of the earth is drawn up into a tail about 300.000 km
long although its extent has not yet been established. The shadow of the Earth
produced by the illumination from one side falls on the tail correponding to the
night (Figs 5, 10 and 12). Because the air is not photographable it has not been
considered so far as part of the earth (erroneously). The
light from celestial bodies fall on the gaseous atmosphere making the night sky.
When the full moon passes through this tail a lunar eclipse occurs. All planets
with gaseous atmosphere, with axial rotation and transit should have similar
form and orbits.
All along the spiral orbit the twelve constellations appear in a specific
sequence; when the Earth and sun are aligned with a particular constellation,
the respective name of the zodiac house applies (Figs 20.9 and 20.4). The
relative positions of these constellations being so complex and wide open in the
cosmos it is not possible to explain them now.
Variation in the quality of sunlight is possible due to the time required for
one rotation of the solar disc. At the solar equator 1889,3216 m/sec light
emanates illuminating the earthÝs surface so that in 26.8 days one rotation is
completed. This accounts for the sun spots or alteration of energy received at
different days. (Figs 20.12 and 20.13)
8´ In order for the moon to keep pace with the spiral orbit of the earth at a distance of 384.400 km it should follow a sinusoidal orbit twisting around the earthÝs orbit. This accounts for the daily change in the moonÝs phases. The waxing and waning of the moon are due to the relative movement of the earth and the position of the observer. (Fig 20.10).
Probably the solar system has a spiral orbit with
reference to the polar star so that its relative position remains
unaltered through ages.
Although the perils of green-house effect may be imminent, as to how far the
ozone layer or the depletion of it is responsible for this is questionable. Even
if there is an ozone layer and there are holes in it above the south pole,
electromagnetic radiation cannot penetrate through the same because the angle of
incidence of sun light varies from the tropical region (where it is
perpendicular to the north-south axis) to the polar region (where it is
The relative distance of observed bodies and lack of sophisticated equipment, professionally trained personnel and logistics were limiting factors to make more prolonged and detailed observations and calculations.
To admit a spiral model for the solar system, encompassing individual spiral tunnel orbits for each planet, leads inexorably to the modification, expansion or dismissal of present theories.
calculations and tridimensional models and
graphics on these lines should be developed for education purposes all round the
world in different languages.
point comments on:
COSMOS,THROUGH AN INFINITE
reinterpretation of concepts about our place
the celestial dome.ţ
The three components of our planet may be identified as a solid earth, a
liquid water and a gaseous atmosphere. Scientists include plasma as a fourth
component. On the other hand, solid earth presents several types of rock,
pebbles, sand and finer particles. Water itself may get frozen to become solid
ice or snow, or it may get evaporated into the atmosphere. The gaseous
atmosphere embodies air, water vapour and suspended particles including dust,
organic materials like spores, hyphae, bacteria and flies of various kinds. The
air that envelops the Earth extends on the side of the Earth away from the
direction of its orbital movement. When the human
incapacity to look at the air particles or produce photographic evidence for air
are taken into account, it is obvious that the values for the gaseous envelope:
of the planet Earth have been constantly ignored in all the calculations so far.
The text book version that the planet is covered by 71% water and 29% earth
should be rectified accordingly. The extension of atmosphere has not yet
been determined accurately. The rotation of the terrestrial globe at a constant
speed of 0.5 km/s on its polar axis indicates the spin of the solid Earth but
not the air surrounding the same. The orbital displacement along the equatorial
plane produces a tail-like extension of the gaseous atmosphere. All the
measurements available so far refer to the solid core alone and hence the
information is incomplete. Therefore, specifications such as 12756.78 km
equatorial diameter or 12713.83 km. polar diameter become erroneous. On the
other hand, the atmosphere plays an important role as this includes the
biosphere and strategic airspace for transportation and communication purposes.
The climatic condition along with edaphic factors determines the biotic factors
and hence the biodiversity in the biosphere. The tropical regions are known for
the abundance of living organisms and the biomass.
The former analysis clarifies that air, water and earth make up the
planet which, on account of constant movement should actually take the shape of
a comet (a solid core sorrounded by a gaseous sheath), not the shape of geoid or
a globe. If we add plasma as a fourth component forming
the outer limit of the planet then comet shape is even clearer:
A: Core of the planet rotates from west to east (light-day, shadow-night) indicates the direction of the system.
Displacement in a repetitive path 360_ per year.
Extension of this path with other similar units and the sunÝs herculean speed
plus galactic speed etc.
Any opaque object obstructs a ray of light and at the same time, produces
shadow on the opposite side of the incident ray of light. Applied to our planet,
the solar radiation received vertically along the tropical zone constantly
illuminates one side of the planet (actually only a portion less than one half)
due to the rotation movement of our planet. The side exposed to the sun light
experiences the day light whereas the opposite side experiences darkness, the
night-time. Earth`s rotation being anti-clockwise, that is, from west to east,
at any place along the equatorial plane sun rises at the eastern horizon and sun
sets at the western horizon continuously which occur in a regular sequence where
the day light and the night meet one another. For an observer on equatorial
location due to this rotation the eastern side in the morning becomes the
western side at sunset. Rotation speed being 0.5 km/sec. considered at
equatorial sea level, the length of one rotation is 23h 56m. 4.091s or to round
up, 24 hours a day.
The shadow of the planet coincides with the night in which the atmosphere
is extended as a tail. Only when this shadow falls on the moon an eclipse (lunar
eclipse) takes place. A reflected portions of the fase of the moon is visible
The night sky is on a side away from the sunlight and stars twinkle
through the tail of the planet earth. Other planets are visible at night time,
away from sunlight.
Our position on the planet from where
observations are made, is located at the bottom of atmosphere but normally
referred to as the surface of the planet earth. From this point our
visibility gets reduced. We are able to see a conical area around us, the apex
of the cone is the viewer (30_ solid angle) whereas the base is the firmament or
celestial bodies. This visible cone extends along the tropical belt due to
planetary rotation. The invisible cone corresponds to an angle where the sun is
in the focal point and an area around and space beyond extending from the
observer as apex to infinity. When celestial bodies pass through this cone they
"disappear". The celestial body may be located in between the sun and
the observer or beyond the sun. (Fig 20.8).
The observerÝs position, when nearer the equator should have better
visibility whereas when such point is farther north or south from the equator
the observation range is lesser.
For centuries the navigators in the northern hemisphere (as per existing
concepts) have maintained the polar star as a point of reference (mere one
degree) especially for its apparent constant position right above (90 degrees
with equatorial horizon) the north pole. Thus for all comparative purposes the
North Pole is, actually, in the upward direction and the South Pole in the
downward direction. Even from our own regular observation its position seems to
be constant .
Probably that star is moving in the direction of the north pole but away
from it at 90 degrees from the equatorial plane of our planet (same plane as the
solar equator and planetary plane of the system as a whole). However, because
the solar system has moved along the circumference of a circle (a helical orbit)
in relation to the Polar star its relative position has remained the same for
Of course, this circle actually gets extented into an open helix due to
the relative movements of celestial bodies.
The range of north - south fluctuation of our planet, responsible for
seasonal variation, is not necessarily due to an inclined polar axis. Assuming
the yearly orbital movement of our planet to be a circle, the position of the
planet along the circumference at any given moment is a point. Taking this
circle as a base and the sun as its apex a cone may be drawn up. The
angle at the apex with the axis is : 23 degrees 27 minutes and 3O seconds solid
angle which so far has been considered as an ýinclined polar axisţ of our
planet. In fact, if the axis is inclined the polar star would become invisible
even from the northern hemisphere, at some time of the year.
The planets visible to our naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn)
may be located easily at night with minimum training. Interestingly their
visibility has no relation to their orbital status or in other words, they are
visible almost every night. Such planets only become ýinvisibleţ when they are
located at the "same" zodical house (30 degrees wide) as that of solar
The planet Saturn for example, requires about 29.46 terrestrial years to
complete 360 degrees orbital movement or about 2 l/2 years along one zodiac
house. Jupiter requires for one full 360 degrees orbital movement about 11.86
terrestrial years, or almost one year to transit one zodiac house. Our own
planet requires 365.26 days a full 360 degrees orbit; that is, to transit
through the 12 zodiac houses.
This analysis leads us to an obvious question. If the planets were to
follow heliocentric orbits on the solar equatorial plane, at least during six
months of a terrestrial year the outer planets should not be visible at all
while our planet is found on the otherside
of the Sun along its orbit. But this does not happen. We can see them almost
throughout the year.
If there be a heliocentric orbit for the Earth, on an equinoxial day (for
example March 21) 00.01h to 12.00h corresponds to day time, 12.01h to 24.00h
night time and on the next
equinoxial day (Sept.23) 00.01h to 12.00h to night time and 12.01h to 24.00h to
day time. This is because of the relative position of the planet and exposure to
sunlight. Intermediate day night distribution should occur in between. this also
does not occur.
Only when the planets pass through the invisible cone or the intensity of
the sunlight does not permit observation they become invisible. The resolution
power of the eye is yet another factor. The size of a
planet and its orbital distance can make it invisible. An angle of reflection
may be so wide that it becomes invisible. Of all alternative explanations
analysed the only conclusion ever possible is that: PLANETS DO NOT GO ROUND THE
SUN ON HELIOCENTRIC ORBITS. They
exhibit a tunnel like helicoidal orbits individually, thus forming as the solar
system, a grand tunnel headed by the sun itself. (tow sang vortex) The
planets adopt this configuration in a sequential order: Mercury, Venus, Earth,
Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto,etc.
The mass burnt up at the solar surface produces solar winds which reach a
speed of up to 500 km/s while the sun moves at a speed (herculean) of 100
km/sec. along its orbit. The energy produced is radiated all around. On burning
the mass a vacuum is formed where
moments earlier there was the sun and the mass.
Spiral Onflow of universal natural dynamo (sound)
referred to as centripetal force, corresponding to the orbit of the sun
or core of the tunnel holds all the planetary system in position. With reference
to the planet Earth, this core should be located at a distance of radius
(59552228km) of this circle
(Fig 20.6 and 20.11).
Although solar radiation takes place all around the sun, the planets
situated along its equatorial plane thus receive light from the equatorial
region of the sun. If the sunÝs rotation occurs at 26.8 terrestrial days light
emission varies every instant and this accounts for the alteration of radio
waves at regular predictable intervals. Even one small ray emitted from that
point moves along the same equatorial plane to illuminate the planets that
follow the sun. (Fig. 20.12 - 20.13).
Light from solar surface illuminates the planets along their helical
orbits in such a way that on equinoxial days alone the tropical zone receives
the rays from the solar equator whereas on solstical days the rays from northern
hemispheres reach the southern hemispheres of the planets and the rays from
southern hemisphere of the sun illuminates the northern hemisphere of the
planets. Hence, the variation in the quality of solar radiation is obvious.
The clear visibility of planets other than our own is possible only at
nighttime coinciding with the tail.
Those planets that are visible in the early morning hours must be on one
side whereas those that are visible in the early hours of the night on the other
side. However, when the planet(s) are visible throughout the night they should
definitely be completely on the darker side. But
observation shows that Jupiter is seen in the morning sky throughout the year
but ýneverţ in the year 1996 in the evening sky. Also,Venus was seen in the
evening sky till 8/6/96 and reappeared in the morning sky on 16/6/96. Heliocentric
orbits do not yield to this pattern considering the rotation of our planet in
addition to orbital advancement.
The size and distance between any two planets as per visibility, should
indicate the real figure. In a heliocentric orbit the distance is so much that
even visibility would not be there. It would be also of interest to compare the
size and distance of the sun to determine this possibility. The relative
position of a planet, star, moon or any other celestial body may be located from
the point of observation. The size of the object and the relative distance from
the observer is a factor that determines the visibility.
The relative angle may easily be calculated.
Will the inner planet Venus on its heliocentric orbit be visible at all
when found far behind the sun? What about the darker face of the planet along
the orbit ? For how long ? What about the outer planets? That too during
nighttime for the observer. Three dimensional models for all these celestial
bodies should be elaborated for demonstration.
Daily rotation of the planet earth requires 23h 56m 4.091s and the year
has 356 days, 5 h, 48 m, 46 s. Although 365.25 days are accounted for by the
addition of one day every leap year, the fraction remains unaccounted for. On
completion of one century one day should have been added to the calendar to
cover this deficit. The Roman calendar was updated by Gregory XIII in october
15, 1582 therefore by october 1982 after four centuries the next day after 15th
should have been 20th thus bringing in live with the precise calendar. By
parliamentary decision British and American calendars were adjusted to September
14, 1752. An intelligent calendar should be based on sidereal basis, starting
from a celestial special occasion. Lunar calendar may be used for day to day use
to avoid confusion.
The space telescope Hubble or Soho can look at the day/night sky better
due to lack of suspended soil particles in the air. How
does light get reflected without these particles? Are they not reflecting
solar radiation? Through Hubble telescope do we see waxing and waning for the
planets? Do we see the darker side of the inner planets? What is the ýinvisible
angleţ near the solar disc? If Mercury is invisible what about Venus when its
orbit is within similar range? What about outer planets when they are in this
range? Do we have a location map of planets from its coordinates?
The twelve constellations indicate the 360_ of a
dome at astronomical dimensions, the Polaris functioning as an axial reference
to our solar system. This configuration explains the solar movement along the
zodiac as visible from our planet through its helical orbit.
The sun moves along the zodiac considering the earth to be stationary
with rotation alone.
When our planet moves in a helical orbit other
planets look like they are moving retrograde in their helical orbits.
A revision of figures given as distances from Earth to other planets in
heliocentric orbit is necessary when they are not going round the sun. Can there
be visibility due to their size ? However, the pull produced by the vacuum sound
left after the burning of solar mass and the push exerted by the solar radiation
(solar winds) might be sufficient to maintain the planets in their respective
Our planet known to be a sphere (excluding the atmosphere with air,
moisture, soil and light particles) with curvature of the solid portion presents
the equatorial zone to the direct exposure to powerful vertical incident rays,
whereas the temperate and polar regions experience a diffuse light or oblique
tending to horizontal rays with least impact on local climate.
The position of our planet along its orbit explains the four seasons:
when it is at the northernmost point, the illumination is more along the
southern hemisphere whereas when it is at the southernmost point the solar rays
illuminate the northern hemisphere and on both sides the two corresponding
equinoxial points may be located.
Again when the movement of the entire solar system at 100 km/sec. is
considered along its orbit, the circle constituting the base of the cone gets
extended as a helix or spiral. This is the spiral orbit of our planet proposed
here. Similar helical orbits should
occur for each planet, together constituting the solar system in the cosmos.
As regards our planet, it is at a constant distance of 149,597,870 km
from the sun with an orbital speed of 11.85665 km/s. The diameter of the helix
is 119,104,456 km. The annual distance covered is 3,147,229,551,034 km It is
interesting to note that the planets in sequence present increasing times for
orbits and the nearer the planet the shorter the duration, and the farther the
planet longer the duration. Thus, the orbit of Mercury has the shortest
duration, whereas the one of Saturn (the most distant planet visible to the
unaided eyes) has the longest. The retrograde movement is an optical illusion
along the mutual helical orbits.
Orbital details of planets other than the ones determined from our own
observation require to be ascertained. The solar rotation takes 26.8 terrestrial
days. The alignment of the earth, the sun and a distant star on a specific
constellation establishes the relative position of our planet in the cosmos. The
movement of our planet being anti-clockwise the sun appears to move in a
clockwise pattern along the zodiac.
Ozone layer: A Modern Myth Any
scientific information gets wide publicity in the modern society with immediate
acceptance. This may either be due to fear of being considered as an out caste
or unscientific or simply because of astonishment.
Let us consider the hue and cry over the ozone layer depletion. The
presence of a huge hole in this layer, the green house effect as well as global
warming and so many speculative threats.
There is no need to worry about all these. There is no danger posed by
these at all. The very presence of such a layer is questionable. Even if there
is a layer and a big hole, the size of USA, the sunlight cannot even enter
through this hole; let alone causing skin cancer.
Let us consider the heavy unstable nature of this gas. If the total
available ozone is to be brought to the sea level, the layer should be about 3
mm thick. It is easily broken down into oxygen by several methods. Of late this
layer has been extended at an altitude 8 to 10 km nearer the poles and 17 to 50
km closer to the equatorial region with barely 10 ppm in the atmosphere. So far
there are no known limits to this atmosphere. The dynamic nature of the planet
is evident due to rotation at a speed of 0.5 Km per second and orbital speed of
30 Km per second. There is no known mechanism to hold in position this ozone
layer as a ýprotective mantle around the globeţ. Even so, being a heavy gas,
this layer should get displaced to the tail end of the planet as a mantle or cap
away from the rays of the sun. The planet moving in the direction establishes
Legrangian Point N_1 in between the sun and the Earth at a distance of 1.500.000
km away from our planet Therefore the heavy gas ozone should move to the
opposite side corresponding to the night sky. In this case the ozone layer
cannot filter the sunlight, specifically 240-320 nm waves. Even if there be a
hole corresponding to the South Pole observed by the British team every October
since 1957 some basic questions arise. Owing to seasonal movements of the planet
sunlight does not illuminate the South Pole during six months of a year. Where
is the possibility of UV light entering through the hole? Or during the other
half of the year North Pole experiences darkness and is not receiving UV rays.
How can the UV rays (240-320 nm alone) when arriving at this altitude in an
inclined angle take a 90_ bend to enter through this hole, move northward along
the southern hemisphere, cross the Equatorial zone into the Northern hemisphere
causing skin cancer only in the caucasian people in Siberia or Canada?
Morever, the data gathered by the help of instruments (such as the Dobson
spectrometer) mounted on weather balloons may not be adecuate for concluding the
role played by the supposed ozone layer.
Perhaps more studies should have been made along the tropical zone where
the sunlight is available all over the year. Thanks to this exposure the
tropical children get their daily requirement of vit.D in their own skin with no
High technology should accept pluridimensional multifactorial data from
such dynamic process like Biosphere, atmosphere or planetary systems and should
not be limited to speculative fictions. Perhaps the hole has yet another logical
explanation but far more fundamental in approach.
When a relatively heavy mass (geoide) rotates at a speed of 0.5 km per
second and moves along a HELICAL OR SPIRAL ORBIT the air around with a different
mass produces whirlpools. They get a funnel-like shape due to the displacement
of the planet. The suspended particles in the air reflect the oncoming sunlight
in the southern hemisphere in the month of October. When the geoid moves to the
northernmost point along the helical orbit the sunlight illuminates the southern
pole whereas when the geoid moves downward, the sunlight illuminates the
northern hemisphere. Therefore, the hole is not in the ozone layer per se, but
it represents the illuminated vortex it self.
Regarding the skin cancer predominent among the caucasians, instead of
accusing the non-existent ozone layer how about considering the faulty eating
and living habits which are the main cause of illness whether white or coloured
people? This is not to defend the contaminants or their allies, the industries
in general. Biocides, plastics, acid rains, fallout ashes, toxic nuclear
residues, arms dumps, chemical garbage, CFCs, fuel burning and so on are
destroying the biosphere on one side and exterminating the human species by
causing genetic degeneration as evidenced by the exceedingly high rates of
impotency and related issues.
For a scientific approach clearcut basic concepts, accumulation of
unbiased facts and figures using a methodology involving minimum errors, logical
arguments for a healthy discussion should have been useful tools beyond
speculations and hightechnology. This will lead to the real advancement in a
correct path leading to human welfare. We can only hope that necessary changes
are made at apropriate places to rectify early and to avoid wastage of time,
energy and resourses.
The moon is a natural satellite associated with our planet situated at a
distance of 384.400 km. The moon takes 27 days 7h 43m and 12 s for rotation of
360 degrees. However, the interval between full moon and full moon (or new moon
and new moon) is 29.53 days; with the corresponding lunar phases.
It is evident that during this lapse of almost one month our planet
should have completed almost 30 rotations along its polar axis and should have
moved about 30 degrees along the helical orbit. If the moon rotates around the
planet earth that too should have completed similar rotations and displacements.
Since the movement of the moon occurs around the helical orbit of the planet the
relative phases of the moon as seen from the planet earth is perfectly
understandable. On the occasion of full moon, from the point at sunset moon is
not only visible on the other extreme but throughout the night, reflecting the
sunlight from one side of the moon the visible face. If by chance the relative
position of the planet moves in such a way that its shadow falls on the moon to
constitute an eclipse. On the other hand, when on a new moon day the shadow of
the moon falls over a circular area of the earth a solar eclipse is recognised
The relative position of sun, earth and moon repeats itself every 18
years 11 days and 8 hours when the eclipse occurs once again when the helical
lunar orbit completes specific rounds helical planetary orbit
The association of the oceanÝs high tide with fullmoon is another
phenomenon for comment. It is the sum total effect of solar winds pushing from
one side, the orbital movement, rotation movement of the planet, etc exerting a
push at the ocean in front of the sun with a low tide; and a corresponding high
tide at the tail end (the night) when it is incidentally a full moon. The
heating and cooling, the masses of water, the rotation and seasonal position
along the helical orbit are all factors to be considered in addition to other
celestial bodies that may have impact on our planet.
As a projection, the water vapour in the atmosphere, the climatic changes
in this planet, production of fresh water by the biomass are other aspects to be
considered in the global weather conditions.
When celestial bodies obstruct the oncoming solar radiation the planet
gets no sunshine and hence the water vapour in the atmosphere may get condensed
into ice and darkness prevails. This would be the phenomenon of glaciation. By
maintaining vegetative propagation through underground stems, tubers or seeds
floristic biodiversity may be recovered from getting frozen. The animal Kingdom
may not survive such natural calamity.
On removal of such obstacles the oncoming radiation warms up the climate
and illuminates the planet.
By locating satellites which reflect sunlight this calamity may be
overcome or illumination provided at the darker side of the planet.
Solar radiation may cause alterations in local weather such as tornadoes,
hurricanes, rains, deserts, etc.
Such calamities can be monitored by employing and exploiting adequate
The sum total of forces such as:
- The attraction by the vacuum at the solar surface,
- Push by the solar winds,
- Centrifugal force due to rotation,
- Velocity due to orbital movement,
- Action, reaction and interaction with other celestial bodies like
the gravitational force.
Hopefully, this line of thoughts constitutes an explanation much closer
to reality and coherent than any conventional theory so far available on this
understanding our solar system better in a holistic manner this line of thought
when persued answers to the following applied aspects as well:
Interpreting the orbital positions of the planet, weather conditions, air
temperatures and turbulances may also be clarified.
Management and harnessing of hurricanes and tornadoes as natural phenomena.
Tidal wave production and movement in relation to the position of the planet
along its orbit with a view to harness the energy for human needs.
Obstruction of sunlight by erratic celestial bodies, their possible effects on
the climatic conditions of the planet and ways to overcome dangers such as
Understanding other components of the solar system which follow helical orbits
of their own while maintaining interactions among themselves and with the major
planets including earth. (n-body problem)
By developing technologies to neutralize forces of attraction establish
transportation mechanisms in the atmosphere without damaging the biosphere.
Prediction of earth quakes by observing the clouds and their colour patterns in
relation to the phases of the moon, in order to take early preventive measures.
Utilization of reflected sunlight from variable solar radiation using artificial
satellite systems to illuminate the nights with appropriate technology.
Evaporation of flood waters by focussing sunlight and then conducting the clouds
in the atmosphere towards areas where rain is needed in order to maintain
biosphere in optimal conditions. Due precaution should be taken to avoid misuse
of this technology when and if succesfully developed.
diameter: 376.756.78 Km / 140.756.78 Km
diameter: 140.713.83 Km
of tail: 300.000 Km
of rotation: 0.5 Km/second
velocity: 11.85665 Km/second
of cone circumference: 374.117.680 Km
diameter: 119.104.456 Km
movement (axis): 137.233.577.7 Km Base of the cone-sun at the apex
distance earth-sun: 149.597.870 Km
traveled in one year: 184.108.40.2061,034 Km
traveled one day: 8.616.409 Km/day (23 h. 56 min. 4.091 seconds x 100 Km/second)
of the solar equator from which light is shed: 1.889.3216 m/second = 0.5
Km/second earth rotation.
at light source at cone axis: 23 * 27'
at earth surface which gets solar light = 66 *
32' 30" x 0.5 Km/second
diameter: 1.392.530 Km
26.8 earth days
along its orbit: 100 Km/second
distance from the earth: 149.597.870 Km (about 500 light seconds)
from earth: 339.714 Km
to go round the earth: 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes and 12 seconds
interval between two successive new moons: 29.53 days.
Place of observation: the earth, all movements were observed in relation to the
In a dynamic process an observer becomes
part and parcel of the contents observed as well as the sequential
involving the others . When a person involved in this gamut is capable of
logical reasoning naturally arrives
at the obvious conclusion, the best possible solution. The established
strategies and means to attain the solution require strict discipline
and full freedom of action. That person who has decided for a change in
life style should put it in practice. Once all the involved factors are set
right the dynamic process will flow harmoniously. Physical, mental and spiritual
health of that person will improve in
such a way that noble thoughts and
actions will flow from the depths
of heart . Individual uplift when spreads to the community a social evolution is possible. Creative
ideas and actions bring richness and abundance
to all. That is the true
healthy society anyone can think of.
Among the community
members sound creative scientific
processes may develop under such sustainable social set up.
Human well being is the foal . First of all
do no harm; human values should get priority above
all other values. These are the two basic principles to attain that
goal. A constructive science in turn will enhance the welfare of
the community. Such healthy cooperative
or interdependent self
sufficient social orders are
prerequisites for the implementation
of the new dynamic scientific process. Hence the new science sprouts
amidst a healthy society and serves
the community . This is the
community science .
A fundamental change in the basics such as
concepts, terminology, values, life styles, priorities, outlook, etc. is
essential to attain human endeavors like food, health, education , culture,
social justice, agriculture and such other lines of thinking, talking and
action. The present day life style
in a consumer society leads to tendencies for material
possession of more and more quantities without caring for the means to
obtain the same and at the
expense of higher aims. Which such
material interests human values are relegated to the last priority with least
importance if any.
Several kinds of emotional outbreaks are the
consequences of such inequalities. In
order to recover real human well being all such injustice
should disappear by personal
conviction , an act that requires conscientious
voluntary discernment. Tolerance and cooperation should get in to the
space vacated by the evil, earlier the better. Human compassion, love and mutual
respect should prevail at all levels. All that is known as human virtue should
be translated and transformed into practical use so that a formidable prosperous
society may flourish with durable
There is no need to wait for a total
collapse of the present system with untold sufferings or diverse kinds of
crisis for the crucial change. Reasonable revelations should lead us to a timely
required modification in conduct.
The new society envisaged should have an
organizational coherence strong enough to withstand all kind of
test. The basic goals and the principle
still hold good here too. There should be a local administrative set up of the
people from the neighbourhood who know the problems in detail and the possible
solutions even when such problems are at initial stages probably within easy
solutions. Every major field of activity should have a special
monitoring mechanism within the local population who never forget
the aims and means. Efficiency and creativity
should get above all priority.
A cooperative life style with mutual help in
every walks of life make a formidable society without the obsession of
competitive spirit. Only when the social responsibility of each person is
accepted and respected liberty or freedom has full meaning on the basis of the
equal opportunity of every citizen to live and let live in harmony. However,
even when there are equal opportunities for every one their individual
capacities remain equal. In such circumstances
in order to attain peaceful coexistence mutual tolerance and understanding
without provocation among members is the obvious solution . A heterogeneous
society gives opportunity for homogeneous goals and means. In such a community
talents thrive freely. Recognition of talents. timely support for
materialisation of the means, appreciation of values and virtues should lead to
thriving creativity in a free world. Sharing benefits and responsibility with
appropriate efficient means is the key to all round well being. This is human
evolution in the strict sense.
Self employment either in the backyard
garden to produce consumable fruits
and vegetables or in attached workplaces at every
household may solve many problems facing the present day population.
Freedom of thinking and action permits creativity to flourish. With
the workplace at hand family members and the community as a whole remain
in boundary less constant contact for exchange of day to day experiences or
opinions. Children and senior citizens get better attention. In this process
each one can play his or her role efficiently.
Learning process by doing practical work is
the best method.. Additional generalizations may be provided at schooling
facilities with the help of collegiate efforts from among the community itself.
Special talents and creative thinking
should get ample opportunity to
develop in a systematic way so that
any technology resulting
therefrom may benefit the
community as a whole. New discoveries are bound to appear
from such support.
Elderly people with sufficiently good
physical and mental abilities find
ample opportunities and time to be useful in their chosen fields in society
providing practical solutions to day to day problems from experiences gained
through years of dedicated work . Problems that are allowed to accumulate or
grow become unmanageable or beyond solution. Early solution maintains problems
under control and prevents bottlenecks. Elder citizens often find time to spend
with kids, to play with them, to share with them their experiences or to enjoy
For organizational purpose ten fields of
human endeavor can be recognized but their interdependence is stressed to
maintain the common interests and goals. The grouping is for descriptive
Agriculture: Production of vegetables and
fruits of high quality and in sufficient quantity is possible in the backyard
garden of every household. All organic biomass could be converted into
fertilizer to maintain clean surrounding on the one hand and manure on other.
All the members of the family get opportunity to share the work at backyard.
Normally an hour a day of dedication should be sufficient to maintain a
reasonably efficient garden throughout the year. As and when required
collaboration may be available from among the neighbours on exchange basis.
fresh vegetables and fruits can be obtained all round the year in tropical
regions with sufficient irrigation facilities and human
resources. For large scale cultivation especially monocultives such as
cereals and pulses, fertile extensions are required with other facilities. For
kitchen garden a manageable backyard, say for example, about 700 m2, should be
sufficient for a family of five or six persons. This facility solves other needs
such as transportation, storage, intermediaries, price range, post-harvest
processes, etc. When large scale production is maintained all these steps must
be solved by cooperative ventures and set ups.
Whether large scale, medium scale
or small scale production exceeds the immediate consumption capacity or
economists may say the supply demand equilibrium with high efficiency surplus,
such commodities may serve for exchange with other communities who in turn may
have some other product in surplus but not available with one community.
Surplus production of food stuff means a
strong nation. Once every member of the society gets sufficient quantity of high
quality food stuff all other considerations become trivial.
More so this production is the consequence of community conscious work
force of the locality.
Technical help regarding the preparation of
the soil, selection of the seeds, maintaining the cultivation, irrigation,
harvesting and other operational expertise should be available to the community
through educational institutions of the locality.
Care should be taken to avoid all kinds of
agrochemical and fertilizer that are harmful to the environment, for the users
and the consumers. The same
principle of doing no harm should prevail while applying
agroindustry and high technology
that may deteriorate the surroundings or the consumers.
Water used for irrigation may remain without
contamination from pollutant
chemicals or other garbage when proper care is taken in time. When natural soil
particles are found in suspension in water of springs, lakes and ponds which
flow as rivers or streams adequate mechanical filtering methods may be
sufficient to obtain clean potable water.
Sea water may be utilized for obtaining sea
salt and drinking water for coastal populations.
Efficient solar energy based set ups may produce one kilogram of sea salt out of
35 liters of sea water. The evaporated water may be condensed and used for other
Additional condiments may be obtained and
utilized in similar manner. Those cultivable ones may be harvested locally.
Since a small quantity of condiments are used in food or other wise large scale
production is not required. Any way if production is abundant and surplus other
communities perhaps may require and would appreciate receiving such products on
Food and nutrition: When vegetables and
fruits are available in sufficient quantity and of good quality useful
information should be available for the consumers regarding other conditions of
consumption . The present day mineral deficiencies, protein or amino acid
deficiencies or vitamin deficiencies come primarily from incomplete information
and vested interests. In a new society such interests are absent and hence
useful information may be made available to the consumers through special
orientations. Once the basic techniques and principles are made known creative
culinary art may prosper at every
house hold. Exchange of such experiences among other members of the community
through adequate mechanisms should benefit everybody.
The left over, either vegetable pieces, peelings or any such biomass may
be incorporated into manure at the backyard garden.
Special nutrients for children or elderly
citizens according to the age group needs may be located from diverse vegetables
and fruits. Women require a special attention in the society. They are never
equal to men folks in several aspects; they are in a special category where
their nutritional requirements vary according to their physiological conditions
inherent in their organism. For example, a growing girl may require sufficient
mineral nutrients and vitamins to maintain her endocrine system in good
conditions. A pregnant woman requires in addition to these nutrients
extra dose of fibre to maintain the bowel movements in a stream line to
reduce risk of constipation.
A woman around her forties may require
additional mineral nutrients to compensate the loss of minerals from the bones
and teeth due to known hormonal adjustments. Other specific conditions may
diet restrictions such as disease conditions while receiving treatments.
Many remedies may be incorporated into regular food habits while treating patients
with natural products for detoxification , correction of disorders, elimination
of secondarily symptoms or even regeneration.
Food and nutrition constitute important
components of a healthy society.
Health care systems become meaningful
considering the human being as a whole without fragmenting
the organism into units. Preventive healthy practices include hygiene,
clean air to breathe, fresh water to drink, good quality food in sufficient
quantity combined with proper exercises. Hereditary factors play important role
in determining the basic constitution of the organism. Food and living habits in
a clean and relatively calm surroundings become
complementary factors to promote physical, mental and spiritual health.
However, changing climatic conditions
combined with the wear and tear of the aging process may produces various kinds
of alterations in the organism. Any
attempt to treat the person as a whole should make sure that removal of symptoms
is not sufficient to declare a cure but rectification of the causal factor alone
may guarantee a more durable cure. Again the aim should be to
strengthen the internal vitality so that the organism can regain health and
continue the living process along the normal course.
Child birth, death due to old age or other
natural indisposition should be met
with adequate preparation. These situations are not to be confused as ailments
but as part of natural process itself. Member s of the community with sufficient
experience may be in a position to lend a helping hand at all times.
Accidents like fractures, burns and cuts may
occur in day to day activities and then specialists may be useful with their art
of handling such situations accordingly .
Locally available natural resources like sun
shine, air, water, soil, flora and fauna not only is sufficient for food but
also for use therapeutically as well. Intelligent
use of such resources requires a detailed knowledge regarding their
correct identity, exact dosage, efficient preparations, time of administering
or maintaining in store for use at a later date.
Most of the plants and plant products have
been successfully used in traditional systems in the tropics for food or
medicine. They are used as a whole
without fragmenting them into active principles. Some combinations of different
herbs have yielded synergistic results. Knowledge to use up every available natural product before
discarding it as garbage or weed is the best wisdom available for the mankind
which may be transmitted to the generations through schools.
The traditional methods of agriculture and
healthcare systems may be maintained through conservation of still alive
cultures rescuing them as far as possible.
Physical culture: In addition to household
activities and gardening, teaching, workplace occupations or other inherent
functions an additional organized breathing techniques combined with muscular
toning popularly known as physical
culture may be necessary for any human being.
Special games oriented at age groups may be
organized and formulated for general benefit. Interested talent groups may
develop particular sports as hobby or for recreation purposes to cover the
available free time of the year.
However, in a free society violence has no
place, not even in the name of professional games. Emotional alterations are
conducive to hatred, vengeance or
any such conflictive behaviour of the human weakness. Psychological problems may
lead to violent confrontations with serious consequences to the harmony in
the society. Team spirit and enjoyment of having played with physical
ability and mental agility without expecting to win at every game should be the
principal motive for such activity.
Space and facilities for indoor and outdoor
games should be available for all members of the community.
For regular walking exercises free lanes should be demarcated without
danger from traffic. Vehicular
traffic may be restricted to certain avenues whereas other roads may be
earmarked for walking of children to play with toys. Shade trees may be provided
along such routes to provide the road with shadow or when in full bloom for
decoration or when in fruits, probably for eating. Visual recreation may be
accompanied by tasty fruits to be enjoyed while on a stroll.
Swimming pools or fountains with fish tanks
or water plants add to the general benefit of all.
of breathing and relaxation may be conducted at local schools and other
available facilities . All that has to be done is to adjust the time tables for
use of the facilities.
Body massage and manipulations may be
practiced for physical fitness or part of treatment whenever required. Talented
hands may be trained with adequate orientation.
Conservation of natural resources
constitutes an integral part of assuring a future full of hope for the
generations to come. The present day exploitation of natural resources may lead
to total destruction leaving nothing for the next generation. For the welfare of the
free and fair society which is being planned and envisaged essential
environment protection is mandatory.
Eliminating the toxic waste accumulation
around the world seems to be of primordial importance at this moment. First step
towards this goal should be to halt production of toxic wastes besides using
technologies and products environment friendly. Safe alternate technologies are
known to some extend and others are in the process of development. This is a
positive sign. The use of plastics and other similar chemical substances get
incorporated into organisms and become inseparable or get accumulated in the
environment causing pollution without possible detoxification.
Change of personal life style starting with
simple actions should be an effective solution to this problem. While using articles
whose composition or capacity to endanger the surroundings should be verified in
time. Such information must be available for all the members of the community,
at least in the transition period until they are totally eliminated from the
Use of tobacco and other products to produce
smoke as a life style may have to be reconsidered knowing fully well the dangers
to which people are exposed. This kind of decisions should come from voluntary
convictions of those consumers who have been involved in such a habit on their
own free will or get induced to the habit through others.
Adequate orientation with outstanding examples from such social evils
should serve as eye opener for the next generation willing to change for a
better humanity. Those who refuse to understand and leave such habits may find
no generations to follow them.
Mutual esteem and respect for others is the
basis of a free society. A responsible citizen should be conscious of the
process and should remind the one who tends to forget for a moment his or her
own duties in the community.
Protection of air, water, flora and fauna is
the common heritage of all the habitants of this planet without possessive
rights or exclusive privileges whatsoever.
Our responsibility is to conserve our planet at all costs. Any
conservation efforts should be fair enough to maintain this planet intact.
Socio cultural traditions are all over the
world. In the tropics with least foreign interference the culture is maintained
in its purer form whereas in places with intromissions with others the mixture
is evident. Colourful celebrations and participation of community members in
large numbers maintains the culture and tradition for long.
Association of harvest season or spring
festival or a little vacation after hectic activities in the field are all
occasions to share the joy of the moment. Whether in the name of new year or
bidding farewell to the evil spirits celebrations
bring joy for everybody especially for children to show off with their new
acquisitions The joy should last long and therefore one should be more careful.
Discrimination against people having certain
problems like lacking modern schooling or latest modes of dressing and make ups
might be unfair considering the presence among them of lot of useful wisdom in
traditional non-formal knowledge. People may not know how to read and write a
given language or may not pronounce a particular foreign phrase in correct
phonetic style. But they do have hearts to feel and their warmth con be felt by
others. They may have fun to share a smile. Care must be taken to incorporate
these talents intact in any traditional matters. Just because one is trained in
a way of life or in one paradigm it should not be sufficient reason to consider
the others as superstitions or blind belief. Live socio-cultural traditions when
they are worthy should be cherished for ever.
Particular faiths and beliefs constitute
formidable ground for religious groupings with their own characteristic ways of
life and means of practice. When these groups are not antagonistic to the basic goals and
principles they may be promoted leading to harmony among heterogeneous
groupings. Any authentic religion
promotes integration and peace. Live and let live should be a fair deal for
every one. Each one has rights to choose but that choice should not obstruct
other' s rights. When every one
complies with inherent duties and acts with full responsibility the community is
safe and healthy. This is to enjoy freedom and let others do the same.
Education is a continuos process of
organized learning as already mentioned in preceding chapters. One
learns by doing and gets experience.
Whenever there is an opportunity to learn make full use of the same and so also
whenever there is a need to teach share your experience with joy. One learns
even from teaching. Teaching and learning go hand in hand. There is no known
limit to knowledge and wisdom. So is our capacity. All that has to be done is to
foster our capacity to learn and teach in a systematic organized manner.
In any community all the major interrelated
fields of learning should be incorporated into education systems so that every
interested citizen gets an opportunity to know. If the information is useful it
may be processed and action could be
taken accordingly. A village designed in such a way should elaborate ways and
means for a pleasant and peaceful life.
Many things, especially the finer ones, are
not taught in educational institutions but learnt by one self. When sensory
perceptions are improved as to their capacity and acuteness many more things
become evident. Logical reasoning when applied to this accumulated information
and the conclusions systematically organized the education becomes a process by
itself. Those people endowed with creative thinking or constructive action
should get further support and
opportunities unravel "Nature 's Secrets".
Educational institutions should be organized to cater such needs of
handful of people of the community. Their merit alone matters. The
benefits of their talent will be cherished by the humanity for ever.
Universality of multiversality should
attract talented persons and creative technicians to come together
and produce consumer goods for local use or for exchange with other
communities where the know-how itself become a commodity for exchange..
Security is yet another basic needs of
all living organisms. Birds
build up nests; beasts search for caves; honey bees construct beehives and so on
every animal has one or the other mode of securing the shelter. Those who
tolerate others and live in social groups have complex organizational
structures as in ant colonies or other insect groups. When human being
learns from such animals like insects perhaps we learn lessons to live in
harmony and tolerance. Mutual
esteem and respect are fundamental aspects for such coexistence.
Housing for family units may be considered
as a basic requirement of humanity at this instant. A house with full services
like fresh water, clean air, abundant sun light and sufficient space to move
about, living and working should be available in any community.
Sufficient space for a kitchen garden
and a workplace for self employment in close proximity to the house ensures
maximum efficiency with high living standards
where human values may be
maintained above other values.
Basic transport and communication facilities
and a good neighbourhood of like minded people should be ideal place to put body and
mind together. In this kind of environment family ties are ever lasting.
Taking into account the climatic conditions
in the tropics mindless imitation of lifestyle foreign to tropics may be very
unwise if not ridiculous. Designs should be simple and efficient in order to serve best
the purpose. Locally available
building materials maintain environmentally
friendly living. Ample ventilation and light keep the surroundings fresh and lively. Taking into
consideration the direction of winds and incident light especially in the
afternoons and evenings space allocation and distribution of household
activities should be designed. Furniture should serve the purpose not merely
serve as show pieces.
In such neighbourhood when law and order
problems are not created by any
body maintaining the principle of not harming any body there is little need for
security problems or solutions to such problems.
Each citizen dutifully respects others in
all aspects no infringement is possible. Should
any kind of inconvenience or hardship occurs due to negligence or minor errors
pardon and excuses are human virtues which may be given an opportunity to
manifest. Errors once discovered and rectified are normally not repeated, but
remains a lessons for others.
Administration and organizational
multifactorial activities in such communities require least
organizational structures, resources and functional means.
Best solutions for any problems are
available right at the basic unit either a person or a family.
Rarely the problem may extend to a neighbourhood.
Those who live in close contact may have a practical solution at hand.
A neighbourhood can organize representatives
from among themselves for detection and solution of problems.
When every household participates in such social responsibilities work
becomes easier. If
required such problems or possible solutions
may be conveyed to another more inclusive community level where representatives
from other neighbourhoods bring their inputs as well. Likewise levels may be
extended to regional, zonal or central or
national levels. This is the true decentralization where the true power is the
basic unit itself.
An able administration should be efficient
and smooth to serve the people and not to put more burden on the citizens. There
should be a free flow of information in all directions.
Surplus human resources and material
products or a fixed quota may designated to meet the needs of general functions
and to maintain the organization with free hands. For example, other members of
the neighbourhood may maintain the kitchen garden of the one who is busy
representing the interests of the members at another place.
An organized free society should be the
backbone of the new science which in turn, should serve the mankind.
True knowledge managed by people with wisdom promotes peace prosperity
and well being of a new society for the next millennium.
"Good bye to ruling Scientific Model,
Proposal for a New Science" demonstrates
that the modern science, Cartesian baconian scientific method, the experimental
model, is full of errors in concepts and methodology. The fragmented
reductionist information being
heterogeneous and defective besides being
obsolete should be reasonably abandoned.
In order to satisfy the need for a better
functional model a proposal is presented herein. This new scientific model takes
into account the human capacity to perceive the dynamic process as a whole.
Thought provoking discussion and insights
are presented all along the twenty chapters of the book, including samples of
application of the new model. A few previously published articles are also
Critical comments and arguments are
presented in fields of knowledge considered as separate entities like biological
sciences, health related
themes, human genetics and genetic
engineering, traditional heritage, anthropology, mathematics, celestial bodies
Open minded readers are invited to
understand and if found reasonably significant, to rethink in these lines their
own field of specialization