About the Author
Professor Pallathadka Keshava Bhat was born in the south of India on January 3, 1940. His parents brought him up in constant contact with nature and created in him a loving concern for it. He is married to Devaki and the couple has four children.
Prof. Bhat studied at the University of Madras from 1955 to 1966 earning three degrees: Bachelor of Science (1959), Master of Science (1961) and a Ph.D. in Botany (1966). He also received a graduate honors scholarship. After his studies Dr. Bhat worked as a research assistant at Presidency College in Madras and received the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research Senior Fellowship. From 1969 to 1987 he worked at the Universidad de Oriente in Cumana, Venezuela, on the Science Faculty, in the Biology Department at both undergraduate and graduate levels, and reached full Professorship since 1980.
Prof. Bhat is the founder of Natural Health Reeducation Movement which promotes a simple way of better living. In addition to papers presented at national and international congresses he has also written the following books prior to this publication:
BHAT, K. P.
Ayuda para el estudio de las plantas con flores Ed. UDORIENTE CUMANA 444 pp.
Automatically Baptizing and Classifying Device (ABCD). Phytomorphology 34 (1-4): 78-81
1985 (First Ed.)
“Herbolario Tropical” : una manera sencilla de vivir mejor
Editorial Texto, Caracas, 174 pp.
Holistic Life: A Simple Way of Better Living
Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor. Printed by Codeword Process & Printer, Coelho Lanes, Falnir Mangalore-575 001, Karnataka State, India.
2nd Ed. 1994. Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor.
1st Ed. in French 1990
On tracheary conduction in Plants
Guest Lecture at VANASHREE, pp. 12. Assoc. Bot. Teach. Mang. Univ. MULKY, Aug 30, 1987
Herbs Heal: Illustrated by 8 cases of cancer
Paper presented by Dr. Keshava Bhat at the First International Meeting of Experts of Developing Countries on Medicinal Plants held at Arusha, Tanzania, in February (19-23), 1990
Las Bases del Naturismo
Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
The Basics of Natural Health Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor Caracas.
The Basics of Natural Health Hard Cover Carlton Press, N. York.
El Sentido de la vida: Desde el embarazo hasta la muerte
Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
El Cosmos atraves del tunel espiralado infinito. una Interpretacion de los conceptos sobre nuestro lugar en la boveda celeste
Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas.
The Cosmos Through an infinite spiral tunnel
Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Major, Caracas.
Bhat, K. P. , Frank Bracho & Carmen de Freites
La vuelta al conuco
Publisher: Ediciones Vivir Mejor, Caracas, pp. 272
Prof. Bhat was elected a member of Committee of Experts on Medicinal Plants in Developing Countries, during the First International Convention of experts on the subject held in Arusha, Tanzania in 1990. Dr. Bhat has an extensive international experience in the health field, especially in tropical developing countries. He attended the First International Congress on Nutrition and Health held in Rome in 1994. He was a special invitee at a Conference on Redefining the life sciences organised by the Third World Network in Penang, Malaysia in 1994. In 1994 Prof. Bhat’s candidature was short listed for Right Livelihood Award from Stockholm.
Bharat, that is India, in its National Emblem carries a vedic phrase: “Satyameva Jayate” (Only truth triumphs).
Truth is an abstract relative phrase.
Each person may find and verify his or her own truth. Many a times illusions are evident but realities are not.
The word TRUTH and its meaning constitute fundamental education given to children at home and school around the world. This reflection remains in mind even when one grows up.
As a student of science, it was necessary to read century old journals at the Madras University Library, with contradictory arguments in the articles; to discuss which article or viewpoint was convincing; to conduct experiments and obtain comparable results; to teach
undergraduate and graduate students of Botany. How to identify the truth in all
these circumstances and to adhere to the same? It hurts to know that
something is not true, but one is helpless.
That situation is no longer there.
For more than ten years I have retired from classroom routine; no
more texts, no more syllabus, no more experiments to obtain repeatable
results. No more promotion to await, no more positions to lose, no more
progress report to submit, not even employment. Time is ripe
and opportunity is given to spell out what has been in my experience
all these years.
The ideas expressed in this book represent my viewpoint after careful
analysis of available information and logical reasoning. Discussions
and dialogues with friends, graduate students and colleagues served to
clarify some aspects. National and international events have stimulated
to prepare additional comments. The chapters stress the need for
dedication, time, energy and resources in these lines. There are some
repetitions of ideas at different chapters due to three reasons:
the Chapters were written at different time intervals
the interrelation or continuity among ideas
to drive home specific argument
Significant barriers in communication become evident from the past
recorded history. Diverse authors round the world with heterogeneous
information and background, individual paradigms with limited effective
active sustained dedication, have established concepts and package
systems. Partial observation with prejudiced limited perception using
static parameters, have not even taken into account dynamic nature
before establishing the present day scientific model with all its
Journals and periodicals have repeatedly published the findings and
conclusions to project to the scientific community. Specialisation
and special groups have established their journals for safeguarding
their own interests. Even the latest trend in these publications to
incorporate dynamic models had to do so, adding to the old static
concepts and frameworks. Speculations, evolutionary frameworks and
computer models have mushroomed into modern science.
Diverse disciplines require critical revision in their respective
fields. Readers are invited to maintain an open mind, to reason out
without prejudice, so that the process may be better understood for
the benefit of mankind.
Dr. K. Padmanabha Kekunnaya has executed the typesetting and diagramming
of the book.
I take this opportunity to thank all collaborators individually. The
cause is foremost and the means next important.
P. Keshava Bhat
ANALYSIS OF MODERN SCIENCE AND SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE
Analysis has to be applied when we intend to thoroughly understand, determine or find out the facts, relationship or processes involving the dynamic nature of the constituents in any scientific matter or subject.
Taking into account that dynamic Nature is a continuous process, it is important to watch the details, keeping in mind the flow of events as they occur and trying to understand this dynamic quality through the perception of its fluidity. In order to be sure about a given subject, the process should be followed in similar circumstances, being, nevertheless, aware that one and the same phenomenon never repeats itself in dynamic Nature.
Whenever possible, know about the background of an author: his or her academic or non-academic education and training, contemporary predominant ideas, instrumental limitations, bibliography at hand at the time of writing the article or essay, technical assistance received from collaborators, ideology or religious inclinations if any, etc.
Then read the text and understand the contents. Identify any error regarding form. Make pertinent corrections to set it right. Also identify errors regarding contents such as conceptual, instrumental, human incoherence and contradictions. Correct these theoretical aspects too. This procedure should enable us to note down any new problems flashing out of the analysis which in turn serves as basis for fresh investigation.
1. ERRONEOUS, OBSOLETE CONCEPTS AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES IN MODERN SCIENCE.
Chemistry, being the backbone of biochemistry, has its origins in the practical alchemy school founded by Paracelsus in the 16th century.
Democritus, from the 4th century B. C., had already proposed the word “atom” to mean the smallest indivisible particle. However, the chief honor goes to Dalton, who developed the atomic theory of matter and the Periodic Tables to express the classification of chemical elements according to specific characteristics.
The biochemical processes are generally explained through attractive and impressive biochemical pathways at molecular level, using atomic models to explain the ultra structures derived from complex images obtained using man made instruments of high technology. It is claimed that the human body is made up of more than 80 trillions of cells; each cell has an estimated six billion reactions. Each erythrocyte (RBC) contains about 280 million hemoglobin molecules and each molecule has ten thousand atoms.
Whereas in Physics, considered to be the basic science in modern days, the divisibility of atom was demonstrated in the 1940s when the atom bomb, with a destructive capacity equivalent to 15.000 TNT, was exploded over Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Soon electrons, protons, and neutrons replaced the atom as the smallest particles of matter ever known. Nuclear energy included both fission and fusion products, much of energy plus radioactive wastes. This information was promptly used commercially to exploit the world with electronic devices. Subsequently, quantum physics has abandoned all the previous information in favour of devoting more time, energy and resources to understand the six quarks.
Meanwhile, scientists dedicated to chemistry have not changed their traditional basic concepts keeping in line in order to catch up with Quantum Physics in spite of the fact that more than 50 years have elapsed since the advent of the conceptual change.
The problem is that this chemistry serves as basis for organic chemistry, biochemistry, etc., which in turn is the backbone of modern cell biology, cell physiology, genetics and even the highly speculative phylogenetic evolution. What it should have been done was the updating of all concepts in a coherent way, with the addition of more scientific objectivity in order to maintain the sequence which links up the mentioned branches of knowledge, thus facilitating the understanding of the dynamic biological process as a totality and as a whole.
2. QUALITATIVE SCIENCE
When a dynamic process is fragmented into tiny bits, the wholeness is obscured by the reductionist tendencies. Under a close examination, most of the vocabulary used in modern science and scientific literature has words and concepts generally conceived with limited meaning. These should be reviewed and corrected when found erroneous, or abandoned if they are obsolete. A flexible terminology is indispensable to describe a dynamically vibrating quark or similar phenomena. When the observer is absorbed or engaged with an idea, or is attentively dedicated to one aspect of sensory perception, other sensory organs do not transmit messages adequately.
Birds fly or sing day or night.
When we are awake they are visible or heard.
When we are asleep we do not see nor hear.
To illustrate the point, let’s take the case of biology. “Bios” means “life” and “Logos” means “study”. Thus biology means “the study of life”. Paradoxically, what is always studied is… something dead. Dead bodies.
Another example is the concept of Species: originally, Linnaeus used the term in 1753 to denote taxonomic unit in nomenclature, an epithet given by Linnaeus accompanies a holotype -a dead sample and a latinized description based on the type specimen. The dynamic nature of a live organism was thus reduced to one static moment in space and time, on behalf of scientific precision!
Several modern authors have tried to incorporate a better definition for species, by introducing terms such as: biological species, genes, ecospecies, among others, but always associated with the same nomenclature.
Robert Hooke (1664) observed a piece of cork under a magnifying glass, a simple microscope and coined a term “cell” to name the individual pigeon-hole like unit. This cell became the basic structural unit of any organism. However, later studies have shown that this basic unit was nothing but remnants of cell wall from the cortical region derived from the phellogen (cork cambium) with typical deposits of wall material in specific patterns and metabolic wastes.
The functional part of the unit was later identified as protoplasm with dynamic structural and metabolic complexities. For all practical purposes, today “cell” refers to a protoplasm with a membrane and in plants a cellulosic cell wall gets deposited. Then the study of a cell became specialised fields of studies cytology, cell biology or cell physiology. The organism as a whole is totally obscured by fragmenting on one side and the basic concept of cell became
extrapolated on the other.
Cryptogamae and phanerogamae are two terms coined by Eichler in 1875 and again reinstated in 1883 to describe groups of plants (taxa) which have a set of attributes common to all their members. This artificial grouping serves to separate organisms on differences and to bring together members on similarities, two basic functions of classification.
To that purpose the terminology served. But the Greek word “Cryptos” signifies “hidden” and “gamos” means “marriage” in the sense that there is a hidden marriage among these plants. Whether plants have marriage hidden or otherwise is a question worth consideration
especially because it is a term referable to human beings only or at most to animals. It is a social contract and all other implications go with that word.
Regarding the hidden nature of gametic union, if that is meant, even that is not true because gametes can be observed under compound microscope. Their union has been the object in recent studies.
On either counts the term becomes obsolete and complete misnomer.
In the same way phanerogamae meaning open marriage, a term equally invalid. The members of this taxon have flowers no doubt, but that is not the marriage. The double fertilization and triple fusion are the characteristic features of this group of plants, but this process is far from “marriage” and not visible. Even the modern high-tech has not been able to observe the process in a natural way.
Terms like these are abundant in descriptive sciences developed during the later part of 19th century and 20th century. While describing plants and their parts Linnaeus needed adequate words for different structural entities and naturally had to borrow from animal science. But those words mean one thing in animals but when brought to plant science the meanings changed significantly. First of all those words used in animals should not have been employed in plant science but other new terms should have been developed or coined as the case may be. The confusion in the mind of the user, whether a student of natural science or a professional such
ambiguousness should have been avoided.
Take for example sex in animals. Generally one animal is male or female but there are animals with capacity to produce both male and female gametes in one and the same organism as in the case of earth worm and the organism is considered to be a hermaphrodite. So far so good. But when such terms are applied to plants and plant sciences the confusion arises. Among algae such as Oedogonium where male and female gametes are formed on one and the same filament but on separate organs the organism becomes hermaphrodite. Or among pteridophytes the gametophytic thallus becomes hermaphrodite due to the presence of archegonia and antheridia on the same prothallus. Likewise, a moss “flower” that appears on the tip of a gametophyte containing archegonial
or antheridial clusters, becomes male or female.
In the case of flowering plants, in one and the same organism male, female and hermaphrodite flowers are seen. In some plants like the date palm (Phoenix) male and female plants are separate organisms.
If only more precise terminology could be established for better
communication the existing confusion could be avoided. Based on information available
on the nature, structure and function of an organ or part there of a better concept could easily be established in each case maintaining consistency and credibility to avoid confusion for students of plant science in general.
Terms such as androecium, gynoecium, embryo sac, placentum, ovule etc., are again borrowed from animal science and freely used in plant science irrespective of their difference and comparability. Placentum in an embryo sac is an organ both developing in a female reproductive system of an animal after fertilsation. The ovule is the female gamete also known as an egg. As regards to its chromosomal contents, genetically this single cell (naked protoplasm) is haploid in animals.
While applying these terms in plants with flowers the confusion attains new heights. An ovule is a sporophytic tissue with thousands of cells generally diploid in nature growing on a placentum directly within an ovary out of marginal meristems. An embryo sac develops deep within this ovule and the female gamete is found within this embryo sac. All these occur normally much before the fertilization itself (Perhaps except in the case of orchids.)
The chronological appearance of these structures shows significant differences and the structures sometime do not get the correct connotation with terminology. This confusion is the result of borrowed technical terms from one context and meanings applicable to one set of organisms to be used for another set of phenomena in another set of organisms with totally different context.
Take for example the term trachea. In animals it is a canal with specific function of conduction of air. Applied to plants trachea are dead cells devoid of protoplasm and nonconducting in nature (see Chapter 6, page 51 for better discussion on conduction in plants). Just because the cell wall deposition all along the lateral walls of these cells seen through a microscope anatomically looks like a wind pipe application of such terms is also misleading. Based on such errors attributing a similar function cannot be called scientific.
In an organism like an animal division of labour requires recognition of separate systems like digestive system, muscular system, conducting system, nervous system and so on. But even then a coordination among all these systems is essential for an efficient functioning of the organism as a whole. Fragmenting an organism perhaps served to understand better that organism structurally or functionally but a holistic view should have been indispensable for a complete understanding of a dynamic process.
For shortage of terms when borrowed from one field to another terms and concepts get mixed up requiring a lot of efforts to set them right.
When the dynamic nature of living organisms is considered as a process and studied as a whole, genotype, phenotype, clonal studies, chimeras, chromosomal aberrations, hybridization, cytibridization, or such phrases, become meaningless, far from being scientific truth. For this reason a critical examination is a must at this fag end of the twentieth century.
The efforts to explain the moral and sentimental values in terms of mathematical or statistical analytical methods should be invented to imbibe qualitative values into mathematics or statistics. Feelings and sentiments should be incorporated into quantitative expressions.
Obviously no attempt is made here to analyse and comment on common malpractice resorted to by authors reported not only among developing economically backward countries but also among economically advanced countries or even prestigious centres of research. The malpractice include:
· utilisation of “borrowed” or stolen ideas
· alteration of experimental set up
· fabrication of cooked up statistical or other data
· stolen illustrations
· publication of manuscripts submitted for reviews
· publication of works of others (students, colleagues etc.)
· publication of some work in the same language or getting translated into some other language etc.
The modern science has fragmented the whole organism into minute units so as to get reduced to unidentifiable older systems, organs tissues or cells or other known units for a generation earlier.
Side by side the technological advancement in the modern world has expanded beyond measures. The employment of such techniques as a whole or adapting them to the individual needs has become a fashion for some super specialists but with an old model at the base the Cartesian – baconian system which has lasted for the past 350 years predominating
all scientific world. Speculation and theoretical jugglary has become another prestigious field for many senior scientists who probably find no place in the modern world for obvious reasons. About 80% of the world population living in developing tropical countries has little
or no access to the high tech due to economic social or political reasons.
The reductionist tendencies search formats in high tech programs to solve problems unheard of in such societies without reaching at
effective solutions. At most the possible suggestions to solve such problems require dependence on other latitude. The absence of reliable
statistical data comparable with those available with technologically advanced countries has not permitted to establish indicators in many countries.
Whether it is a question of sophisticated instruments or high tech professionals to keep abreast with the day to day renovation is frankly beyond the reach of many people, even in economically capable countries.
The current tendencies relegate the scientific contribution from such countries or centres of research to third rate quality probably any editorial jury of internationally recognised journals do not favour their findings for publication. However, many countries are complaining about the serious brain drain problem which has been ably exploited by economically or industrially stronger countries.
Ready-made programs or easy to use guidelines may be useful in the beginning but if they are based on erroneous or obsolete concepts the same system becomes a hurdle for progress. In order to attain real progress, considering the present day pathetic situation in which the science is poised, new ideas and arguments along with methodological or conceptual changes should be incorporated. Diverse factors contribute to the heterogeneity of modern science. Development of concepts and methodology by heterogeneous authors round the world through centuries has been the most important factor due to the cultural, traditional and professional background. The chaos has been added by repeated fragmenting to accommodate available data and the fast moving technology. No attempts have been made to rectify the errors not even for a synthetic approach to understand the whole gamut. Divergent trend establishes multiple objectives or lines of investigation guided by one person during his or her professional dominance, say some 25 years. If there has been an attempt to establish a school of followers the line of research may continue for some more time or get altered partially or totally to cater the need of the day. Obviously there are contradictory results or conclusions depending on points of view. For example, a study of tomatoes may indicate many nutrients useful to human being and hence recommend large scale consumption.
Toxicological studies may indicate dangers therefrom due to the presence of organic lead (causing saturnism) oxalic acid (causing renal or vesicular lithiasis) or uric acid (producing painful needles in joints) and obviously a health hazard. Another example may be the soy bean. Many nutritional items present in soya beans serve to feed the millions of hungry people around the world. But the presence of factors like trypsin inhibitory factor or obstruction of minerals (micronutrients) from absorption should alert the user as to the possible risk to pancreatic failure leading to diabetes or retardation of endocrine system leading to sterility to keep away from such substances, including all derivatives therefrom.Using one and the same instrument two scientists may develop diverse lines of study. Telescope and microscope are good examples of optical instruments used in explorations into cosmos on the one hand and deeper and deeper into the structural complexity of organisms on the other.
Science should establish a single goal -human well-being- and utilize every effort to achieve this goal. At the same time, both quantitative and qualitative aspects should be considered in the dynamic process that is nature. (See also Chapter 4)
LIMITATIONS OF CONVENTIONAL SCIENTIFIC METHOD
The conventional scientific method -Cartesian mechanical one- usually adopts the following steps in order to determine the “scientific truth”:
Step I. Observation of Nature.
In order to attain a better perception of the happenings in Nature the human being normally should make use of all the five sense organs (auditive, tactile, vision, gustative and olfative). Nevertheless, in order to measure isolated happenings the conventional scientific method employs only audition, tactile and vision. Thus, the observation is incomplete. The concepts used even in these parameters are usually obsolete, some are erroneous and many are prejudiced.
The observations are heterogeneous and realized at specific moments without taking into account the process as a whole. Other factors are not even considered (such as climatic or genetic or structural or functional variables). The absence of parameters to measure scientifically the taste and smell becomes evident at this stage.
Step II. Problem presentation.
The academic formation of the investigator and the available limited information are shortcomings or determining factors in problem presentation. The scope depends on the researcher and his point of view. Super specialization tends to ignore the process as a whole.
Step III. Arriving at a hypothesis.
The subjectivity of the researcher confines the hypothesis to a prejudice which expects to arrive at a specific result. The favourable results are then sought for, by all means.
Step IV. Experimentation.
This step is the most vulnerable one in the conventional scientific method. First of all the experiment should be repeatable. When the inherent dynamism of Nature is considered it is impossible to get two identical moments in relative space and time and thus moments are not repeatable. Experimental errors include human errors, instrumental errors and the variability of the external and internal conditions of experimental material.
As far as living organisms are considered there are no two individuals alike; one and the same organism is never identical at two different instances, the true dynamism of Nature.
Biodiversity is so complex and ample that so far it is humanly impossible to conduct a repeatable experiment. It is not possible to compare an “experimental” organism with a “control” one since the two are genetically, biologically different. The experimentation does not consider the individual qualities or organisms for lack of parameters to do so.
Step V. Theoretical conclusions.
Theoretical conclusions based on the four preceding steps are not reliable due to human and instrumental errors. Heterogeneous conclusions are not precise and hence are not comparable.
Proposal of a new scientific method.
In order to re-invindicate a true science the following correct scientific method is proposed based on the natural order and way of life (supreme science).
Step. 1. Identify the purpose of research (always within humanistic ethic and respect to the natural order).
Step 2. Establish a simple and practical efficient and creative methodology adequately.
Step 3. Unbiased observation with all the senses with due respect to Natural laws and human integrity with a view to obtain a complete information in a systematic and organized way.
Step 4. Process data with maximum possible objectivity.
Step. 5. Arrive at obvious conclusions and comprehend a natural process leading to the well being of humankind in harmony with nature.
Translated from Spanish from `El Sentido de la Vida p. 70-71 (1994)
1. THE MYTH OF MICROBIOLOGY
All that is heard of as “infection” or “virosis” need not be taken seriously, because of conceptual errors in vogue. All that is said about Microbiology is inadequate. The following example will help to illustrate the point.
Schleiden, in 1865, isolated one microbe from the human excrement and named it Escherichia coli . This E. coli is one of the putrefactive microbes used extensively in laboratory experiments on microbiology.
It has been estimated that one gram of human excrement should have about 10 to 100 thousand million microbes, and more than 400 species among them have been identified.
About 1.500 species of microbes are known so far taxonomically, of which about 150 alone are pathogens. The other 1.350 are useful microbes in one way or another.
In botany, Rhizobia bacteria are found in symbiosis with the root nodules of leguminous plants (beans, peas, lentils etc.) in order to fix nitrogen from the environment. Bacterial flora present in close contact with the protoplasm has a specific function to perform:
disintegration of the cell when it is no longer alive. The decomposition of organic matter in nature is entirely due to microbial activity. So far so good. Problems crop up hereafter.
It is known from literature that E. coli can divide progressively under favourable conditions. The duplication may occur at intervals of 10 to 24 minutes. What are the implications? The bacterial genome is formed of 3.000 genes. Every 100 generations one mutation may occur. This means that a total of 300.000 generations of E. coli should be sufficient to change the original bacterial cell up to 100%. At the rate of one duplication every 20 minutes, within 11 years 5 months and 5 days, the original bacterial cell should have undergone 100% change, becoming something else altogether, different from the original organism and thus, should no longer be called E. coli .
This calculation shows that what was identified as E. coli by Schleiden in 1865, was fully transformed by 1876 and every 12th year became a new organism, of which there has not been information available. Thus, “the microbial culture” maintained throughout has no meaning at all. This story holds good for other bacteria as well.
On the other hand, if every cell contains microorganisms within their protoplasms, even in healthy normal conditions, no question of “infection” comes into play at all. Then, what is the use of antibiotics? Where is the reliability of Microbiology? When all these arguments are taken into account antibiotics do not have the usefulness attributed to them; they are not effective either. Even worse, antibiotics may have released toxic residues like endotoxins with long-standing side effects on the human organism. These effects may extend to the quality of sperms or ovules, responsible for the procreation.
2. CONCEPTUAL CHANGE TO EXPLAIN “VIRAL DISEASES” LIKE AIDS.
Pathogenecity is attributed to `virus’ particles when no other known organisms are found associated with the disease. In other words, when responsibility for certain diseases cannot be pinpointed, assuming that the unknown culprit is always attacking the patient from outside, it is said to be `virosis’, as if viral particles can occur from nowhere. How come science has so utterly failed so far to control the situation?
Is it just because the logical reasoning to identify the problem is missing? Disease as such cannot exist. It is just a state of an organism. Only sick organisms exist and when dealing with persons, they are called `patients.’ When this simple fact is considered, responsibility should be placed upon the shoulders of that person on the first place and least on the viral particles.
When symptoms alone are treated, the cause of the disease remains for ever. When this cause is properly treated and rectified, the patient recovers organs, tissues and cells. Again, the reductionist tendency to divide the organism into systems serves only to facilitate partial understanding. However, for a complete picture before treating the whole organism, an ample synthesis, interrelation of all the organs, tissues and systems, their structures and function should always be understood as a dynamic process.
How does AIDS happen?
Any living cell of an organism has five components, volume, nucleus, metabolism, cytoplasm and mass. When these components function in a harmonious way, there is a reliable and efficient cell. But in every cell there are microbes in close association with the cytoplasm. These microbes remain latent until an opportunity arises to decompose the cell contents in order to obtain energy for their nutrition. Every structurally or functionally defective cell has to be removed from the living organism and replaced with another structurally or functionally sound cell. This removal is possible through microbial activity in due course only. The vitality of the cell, then, determines whether the microbe should stay passive or active.
The cell vitality may be decreased due to some internal or external factors: lack of absorption, distribution or use of nutrients; hereditary factors in turn may hinder the cell’s capacity to eliminate toxic substances, properly or at all, causing their accumulation; also, by organic degradation or wear and tear. Once the cell vitality decreases, the bacteria present within decompose the protoplasm. This decomposition produces an acidic medium through putrefaction. The putrefactive process may occur by consumption of animal protein such as meat, fish, chicken,eggs, cheese, etc. where the resulting acidic medium destroys and eliminates the normal fermentive intestinal flora at the ascending colon.
It is pertinent to note here that the large intestine of carnivorous animals is a short, smooth tubular structure, used to normally shelter putrefactive bacteria. Very different is a corresponding much longer colon of any herbivorous animal, characterized by inner and outer undulations and finger-like projections all over its inner wall, normally with fermentative flora in it. The human colon is as highly ondulated as the one of any other herbivorous animals. The fermentative flora is replaced by putrefactive flora in tune with the consumption of animal proteins. Since the manifestation of microbes in the cell is a natural scavenging process, the so called “infection” will have to be considered as an internal process and not as an invasion from afar, this natural process being consistent with the low vitality of the disintegrating cell/organism.
On the other hand, within the bacterial cell there are always present “viral particles” also known as bacteriophages. These viral particles remain latent until the host microbe itself becomes weaker. Then they become active in order to disintegrate the bacterial cell contents. This is nothing else than the same scavenging process in Nature. In this sequence the low vitality of the cell or organism is expressed at a first stage through the proliferation of bacteria; subsequently the manifestation of viral particles announces the decay of bacteria.
At this point, a comparison may be made to explain the process in a simpler way. Normally, a hen eats up a cockroach which has previously eaten up worms. “The big fish eats up the small one”, we have been told. Except when the big fish is careless. Then it gets sick and dies; its dead body being eaten up by the smaller fish. In other words, we end up with the hen being eaten by the cockroach, and this, in turn, devoured by the worms. (The opposite to conventional wisdom occurs). It is exactly what happens in the case of AIDS or of any other so-called viral diseases.
Just as the high microbial activity in cell degradation is known as “infection”, the viral activity is known as “virosis”.
A common cold, for example starts as a sour throat (which is nothing else than an acidification of the medium, as explained before). The mucous membrane gets disintegrated when the bacteriophage or viral particles consume the bacterial protoplasm and the running nose is the symptom of “virosis”. In modern society it seems that viruses have become favorite culprits to pass on people’s own responsibility for disease to somebody else. Viruses are responsible of all problems. Either viruses or government. (To comment on government’s responsibility is not our aim at this point, though). Now, that statement, of course, may also be a convenient excuse to hide ignorance or wrong concepts and methodology. It should be made quite clear that the pathogenicity of the viral particles or bacteria does not come from nowhere or from outside but only from WITHIN.
The weakness of the individual organism is the key and not “the infection from outside”. Once we are clear on this, it becomes easy to explain the rest. When all the living organisms get fully degenerated, the substrate is then ideal for fungal growth, commonly known as candidiasis or mycosis, a final state of degeneration. This explains the phenomenon of AIDS from the point of view of Naturalism (the laws of the natural lifestyle).
GENETIC ENGINEERING Gate to Heaven or Hell?
Biology means the science of life. One of the so many fields of studies undertaken by man to understand Nature. One of the early fields of studies wherein the plants and animals living in the biosphere are the objects of investigation. The biodiversity, structural complexity, functional patterns, economic benefits, practical uses, possible imitation of models for other fields of application of natural resources, from architecture to embroidery, are all fascinating aspects that have drawn the attention of man since time immemorial. By successive fragmenting, several new branches of science have come to exist through centuries. The twentieth century has gone far ahead and, in an interval of decades, industrial advancement has helped to expand the scope to unbelievable reaches. One simply remains wonder struck with the ability of man to exploit these developments. Many a times the very science or scientific progress is sufficient credibility to convert the fame into commercial investments leading to economic gain. Every nation pours in large sums of public funds into this kind of research to satisfy the demands of the scientific community. So far so good.
But now that humanity is fast approaching the tail-end of the twentieth century, it is time to take stock of what has been left after so many decades of unchecked cult to technological and scientific progress. Every field of science of late has become a bottomless hole which may swallow anything at any time.
Biology, like so much of modern scientific thought, has become elusive and incoherent. Basic conceptual errors, the heterogeneity of biologists with generation gaps in the practice of Biology, the application of recent technological devices at different depth, etc. may be the cause for this situation. If only one can pause for a while and think retrospectively, the formidable scientific empire erected through centuries is crumbling down. All that is required right now is to think with an open unbiased mind; think logically and reasonably. After all, man is endowed with this attribute and should discern to justify his very distinction as a human being. This is high time to do so if at all we want the survival and real progress of biological sciences. Therefore, here is a call to humanity to pause, think and proceed to the next century. Let us not be the last living creatures that ever existed on this planet because of our senseless craze for industrial and scientific advancement as conceived today.
One can easily prepare a list of so many promising or startling scientific discoveries or technological applications in the past that have gone wrong. A few examples may clarify this point. The discovery of “DDT” as an insecticide gained a Nobel Prize for the discovering scientist in 1948; but by the year 1967 its use was banned in the USA after public outcry due to the damage caused to living creatures including humans. The use of Thalidomide in the 60’s by pregnant women to counteract nausea, produced in the end deformation of the fetus; exachlorophene, used in toothpaste, was withdrawn when found to be cancerigen; diethylestilbestrol, a female hormone used in meat production, has been banned from the market for its lethal effect on human health; chlorofluorocarbons, initially presented as a great coolant in refrigeration have been responsible for the ozone layer depletion.
Entire industrial and technological fields, such as nuclear plants, with its threats to world safety converted into nightmarish reality with notorious accidents like that of the Three Mile Island or the Chernobyl one. The petrochemical industry with its uncontrollable pollution capability, able to generate up calamities such as the Bhopal tragedy; and big dams with their equally unmanaged ecological impact and imminent vulnerability, have all come into severe questioning – after having been hailed at the beginning as “wonder technologies at the service of mankind”. In fact, some of these products and technologies banned or subjected to restricted use in the industrial world are being exported whole-sale to the South in a scandalously irresponsible double standard. As we dig, more and more, evidence is pouring in about the death or damage caused by modern science and technology. What could be expected, for example, of further research into the effects on human health (or the living world in general) of the nearly 72,000 chemical substances used in food technology in the form of additives, artificial colouring and flavoring agents, antioxidants, preservatives, etc. present in the modern denatured “food products” consumed by millions around the world?
How this kind of products may be possibly considered fit for human consumption? While the world population is alarmed about AIDS and the accelerated biological deterioration of living beings, including mankind, and continue to search for cure for all kinds of degenerative diseases through costly artificial pharmaceutical products, we turn a blind eye on the responsibility of modern food habits in the breakdown of human health and immunity.
Where was the mistake? Better still we should ask if at all man was on a correct path of coherent inquiry into Nature. How can we know? It is too simple; we go back to basics, restart the entire process. Progress is indeed possible, of course, with corresponding corrective measures.
Bios means life; and logos, study. We have never studied life. Life has always been enigmatic and continues to be so. We pretend to study the manifestations of living beings when they are dead, or in order to study them, they are killed and we call that: “life sciences“. Partial information obtained through incorrect methods is used to suppose or assume in order to speculate with theories. Based on such theories we proceed with further research and construct “castles in the air”; create new “fields of knowledge” and, of course, new technologies to convert the same into economic benefits. Until damages get beyond control, exploitation persists. Let us explain. The scientific method proposed in 17th century by Francis Bacon is still the basic tool for use in the modern world. This means that in order to be “scientific”, it is obligatory to follow systematically the five steps of this method:
Observation of Nature.
Identification of a problem for research.
Proposal of a hypothesis to clarify the scope of the chosen problem.
Experimentation to obtain proof of that hypothesis.
To arrive at universally acceptable conclusions.
At the outset all looks fine; but at every step we have gone wrong. Still we stick to this dogmatic method not to be “unscientific”, especially in the eyes of the orthodox scientific community at large.
Observation of Nature requires great care because of its complexity. For scientists Nature seemed to be static and all theories were
developed on that basis. Nowadays, when the dynamism of Nature is fully
recognized, static scientific concepts and theories still rule. Human perception conventionally cuts across five senses: audition, touch vision, taste and smell. However, in practice, scientifically measurable parameters are available only for three senses (audition, touch and vision) and that, too, with limitations. For taste and smell we are yet to fix up standard parameters. Our capacity of sensory perception is limited whereas the manifestations of dynamism in Nature are unlimited.
Dynamism in Nature is so important that natural processes can not and should not be considered as isolated events in space and time. They should be considered as live processes continually expanding in multi-dimensions. Each component spiral called a living organism is also a living process but limited in space and time. Each and every living organism has its own identity not comparable with any other organism in the multiple dimensions. The dynamism of organisms and the dynamism of Nature should be understood as a related process, beyond any partial observation or event. A biased observation in the absence of a comprehensive outlook leads to identification of problems on erroneous footing or assumptions. The situation worsens by assuming that two living organisms are alike or even two moments are alike in one and the same organism.
Such erroneous starting leads to the proposal of hypo-thesis subject to the scope and limitations of the scientist. The proposed hypothesis is nothing but prejudice, what the scientist wishes to prove.
Experiments are designed accordingly to obtain results favourable to the scientist’s hypothesis. By chance, when the results do not agree with the hypothesis many a times the methodology is changed in order to obtain the expected result.
Experimentation, in the strict sense, should involve as many aspects as possible. However, only few controllable parameters alone are taken into account for the convenience of the researcher. When two living organisms are not alike or when two events are not comparable, even in one and the same living organism, experimental proof is nothing but a tabulation of “results” for purpose of self-justification of the hypothesis. Then the human errors or instrumental errors are generally ignored. The theoretical conclusions arrived at with such a
scientific method are fundamentally flawed. This has been the story for any science in general, and biological sciences in particular. In order to justify the research, the author cites other scientific works and a carefully worded methodology in technical terms.
Because of the shaky foundation on this defective theories in modern biology, it goes without saying that any other theories which have been based on these, in turn become defective.
Furthermore, modern biology is supported by molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, nucleic acids, biophysics, immunobiology, protein chemistry and similar high technology fields. These special scientific insights also require special scientific instrumentation like the one of the electron microscopy, spectroscopy, chromatography, ultra centrifuge, computerization etc. New models of every item appear every year with “improvements”. But for all these special fields of biology a deep study of chemistry is indispensable in order to explain the molecular and atomic structural patterns of living organisms (which again, are meant to be understood through the detailed study of fragmented dead bodies “fixed” adequately). Chemistry as a science depends exclusively on physics for scientific support. Molecules and atoms were considered to be the fundamental structural particles once upon a time.
In physics, however, on a sincere approach, nothing is clear yet. The smallest known particles are no longer molecules and atoms. Physical scientists abandoned the atomic theory far back in 1940’s. The electronic age has entered history, making room for quantum physics, although very little is known about quantum particles themselves. Today even a proposition as revisionist as the “chaos theory” has found an important place in physics.
The atomic bombs were publicly used at the end of II World War to demonstrate the destructive capacity of nuclear power. In spite of this, science and technology have joined hands with politicians and big businesses to make “progress” in nuclear technology around the world. The nuclear waste accumulated in the world in the last fifty years is a distinct proof of the consequences of this kind of progress, destined to remain with us for another estimated 250,000 years! The economic impacts or gains on account of nuclear energy have no limits, the awesome damage done to the biosphere with such dangerously hazardous toxic wastes is beyond words.
Having made clear that the atom is not the smallest structural unit, any science that has been based on this wrong premise, including chemistry, loses its validity. Chemists still cling on the supposed chemical reaction between atoms or molecules; biochemistry builds on the same to explain, through complex formulae live processes using dead samples.
It cannot be overemphasized that what is learnt from dead bodies or their parts do not reveal the live processes. Life is neither defined scientifically nor proved experimentally, but it continues to exist. Again, a simple chemical reaction, however balanced, is not going to explain the action, reaction, interaction and final effects of live processes and their expression. To attribute a simplistic-mechanistic label to a complex-dynamic biological process can not be true knowledge or science.
However, in modern days big business has taken up these high technology-based industries to harness new frontiers for commodities sale. An attractive term coined for such exploitation is “Genetic Engineering” or “biotechnology”. >From the above discussion on science in general and biological sciences in particular, the curtain is raised and the clear picture of the actual situation is apparent. Nevertheless, the speculations and assumptions which foster conventional science are conveniently maintained at low profile by those canvassing for genetic engineering, and so its possible side effects. To sell the goods at high price every possible kind of propaganda tactics is conceived and presented with sugar and chocolate coating.
Let us once again think, for heaven’s sake!
Genetic engineering is based on genetics. Modern genetics supposes that all experimental material consists of a set number of genes or gene pools. It is presumed that nucleic acid with specific structural patterns produce all kinds of organelles and organs. What about the structural dynamism of organisms as a whole? Living organisms undergo a series of biochemical changes (including construction, maintenance and deterioration) as a continuous process at all times. Every living cell is supposed to contain several thousands of complex chemical compounds whose structure, function, etc., still remain to be understood. They play their role through actions, reactions, biological interactions, leading to final expressions such as the metabolic processes. All this living process occurs simultaneously in every living protoplasm.
Genes or gene pools do not exist independently. If the starting point were inorganic components, the story could be different. In a living organism, gene or gene pools constitute a very important ingredient but there are so many other components as well. Genes are far from being the whole picture. With all these explanations, it becomes clear that experiments carried out in a few strains of microorganisms like Escherichia coli or Neurospora may be convenient to be used in laboratories for commercial exploitation, but quite insufficient for application to other more complex organisms, including man. This is just what is being criticized by us: the misleading of innocent public. Biotechnology used in this context in the form of genetic engineering has yet another problem: it depends on the wishes of the marketers.
The very pretense of genetic engineering to fight diseases affecting humans, is a flaw. It is not a matter of “waging war” against pathogens or diseases. There is already overwhelming evidence that the key to ill health lies on poor living and food habits. Instead of fixing responsibilities on human beings, on the bases of pure speculation, genes, gene pools or pathogens are held responsible for every kind of disease. Few decades ago, the chief responsible organisms were bacteria, virus or fungal “infections”; now, it is also the fault of genes. Instead of preventing health hazards, genetic engineering is leading us into a most dangerous arena by creating monsters. One should “prevent” any illness early by regulating his or her food and living habits so that the organism does not deteriorate its vitality, which is the main cause of disease. This preventive health education has not been officially fostered. (for commercial exploitation)
If genetic engineering pretends to improve agricultural output, still the starting point is wrong. Without understanding life itself it is meant to manipulate its genes. Plants and animals which constitute the components of the biosphere, are least understood so far. In spite of this, a number of plants has been introduced from traditional cultivation across the ages; this selection and crop improvements attained through centuries by diverse indigenous people around the world is far too ample and complex to be maintained by simple profit-driven genetic engineering projects.
It is true, genetic engineering has produced certain strains of microorganisms and extensive in vitro cultures of plant materials. Some attempts on the cloning of animal cells have been successful. But the ulterior driving interest has rested on the patenting of such biological creations for commercial exploitation, rather than contributing to the improvement of humankind. The chemicals used in such technology have induced dependence of the people who have relied on them. Such chemicals have destroyed partially or totally the ecosystems where they have been employed in the field. The staggering evidence of this is the so called “green revolution” of recent decades and its disastrous effects.
It the object of genetic engineering is just to remain grounded in laboratory activities using high technology to produce more and more at a faster and faster pace beware of imminent dangers. The effects of mutagens on laboratory technicians or exposure to harmful laboratory chemicals are points to ponder. The obsession of modern agriculture based on high technology may lead to a future generation with no information whatsoever regarding the proper methods of traditional cultivation, locally evolved through experience of many centuries. The imposition of ever hanging and alien technologies on places and peoples quite different from the socio-geographic milieu where such technologies have originated, or the blind imitation of methods and strategies, are all dangerous. In the end, one comes to the logical conclusion that newly produced laboratory stuff at the expense of traditional field work is useless.
Normally male and female gametes unite biologically to produce an embryo. But scientists have been successful to produce “test tube” baby by experiments wherein the gametes obtained from suitable male and female are brought together in a Petri dish under microscope. The fusion product(s) when placed in the uterus of a woman develops into an embryo. Of late by manipulation, haploid nucleus is removed from the egg (female gamete) replaced by a somatic nucleus obtained from cells in the mammary glands. This fusion product or grafted product when placed in the uterus of a surrogate mother developed into an embryo and has caused widespread sensation in the press as a “clone”. Now even governments are discussing the ethical problems with reference to cloning human beings.
However, this product maintains qualitative characters and whether it is fertile are aspects so far ignored. Many questions remain unanswered at this stage including the high cost of this high tech process.
On one side the population division of the UN Economic and Social Department wants a reduction in global population.Many organisations around the world promote such measures. Much of the budgetary allocations in most of the countries indicate massive efforts to control population.
On the other side, much research, resources go to develop high tech test tube babies, clones or whatever name it gets to obtain more population.
The real problem has not even been sensed yet. As one sees, the food habits and living habits all over the world has caused genetic degeneration to such an extent that the human race is on the verge of extinction. The over population of consumer society is the real problem.
Contamination of the environment is the external factor influencing the sterility among human beings whereas the food and living habits constitute the internal factor besides genetic ones.
It is claimed that the `genetic engineering’ is resorted to feed the hungry millions. But in the name of food technology so many nutrients are removed during the industrial processing of raw materials. Two examples should be sufficient here.
Rice is the staple food of majority of human beings. FAO has plans to increase the production by 3% to feed the hungry mouths. During milling and polishing 16% of the production is removed, precisely that portion contains all the precious nutrients like proteins, minerals and vitamins in order to get `marketable’ rice that can have longer shelf life. Then these are practical solutions to rescue the children with mineral deficiency, protein deficiency and vitamin deficiency. If only the people are educated to consume unpolished rice all the problems are solved in one stroke. But who will bell the cat?
So is sugar. Sugar cane grows abundant in the tropical belt around the world. The cane juice is rich in minerals, vitamins and proteins besides sucrose. But during the process of refining sugar to 99.99% purity all the other nutrients are removed as “waste”. By using a concentrated cane juice all the problems could be solved. This process is self evident why the genetic engineering experiments are not justified to feed the hungry. If only there is a change in the human values all problems could be reasonably solved.
On the other hand, the transgenic experiments utilized in agricultural crops has resulted in disasters in Europe. The rape seed variety with incorporated poison herbicide has shared this property with the weed adjacent to the crop. This renders the crop and weed useless. Potatoes,
corn, tomatoes, and others have shown failures in chain. The potato crop with substances to repel bugs not only affected the bugs but also destroys lady bird insect supposedly friend of the farmer. Mischief thou art afoot take thy path! said Antony at Ceasar’s funeral speech! Human errors combined with technical errors may destroy nature.
Regarding the organs transplant or even blood transfusion it should be fair to mention its short sightedness and incoherence. This is due to the individuality regarding immune system and protein fingerprint which normally should reject intrusion of foreign matter.
Further, considering the food body that serves for organ transplant or blood transfusion other bodies like breathing body, mental body, intuitive body and the bliss body of the donor and recipient, their compatibility and other details are not even taken into account so far in scientific approaches.
When concepts and methodology are on the wrong footing no results worth the stuff may be expected. Assumptions or suppositions should be subjected to test at every stage before proceeding to the next step on the same line. But in the modern scientific literature these are not seen.
Take, for example, the recent cloning attempts on human embryos. The technology involved is very costly. It is obvious that by common sense people around the world know how to procreate. But still “laboratory babies” are in great demand, especially in the industrial world. In the tropics, great efforts are made to control population by mass sterilization methods, whereas in the industrial world, where the human fertility is severely affected, this “baby boom” has become a convenient commercial venture. Technology has been developed to “help” those couples who are unable to procreate by themselves due to various barriers. The available statistics indicates that in France alone there are more than 20,000 “units” (pro embryos) kept in special containers at minus 180§ C. to be recovered or destroyed to suit buyers wishes within the next five years. Each baby’s market price tag is about forty six thousands US dollars. A big business indeed!
The ovule from a woman and sperms from a man are collected, and fertilization is realized in the laboratory. The product, the zygote, is given adequate facilities to grow normally by cell division: one into two, two into four and four into eight cells. Then these cells are separated at an “appropriate” stage and one portion is implanted in the uterus of a would be mother, whereas the other portion is kept in refrigeration for future use. It is presumed that all the derived cells are identical in their genetic constitutions and hence they are supposed to be replicas or clones, grossly overlooking that two cells, even from the same origin, are never alike due to the inherent dynamism of the division process. By way of illustration, all the cells of the body, which come from an initial single cell, evolve into structurally and functionally diverse cells, tissues and organs.
Apart from this, there is no guarantee that a test tube baby thus produced will develop into a normal child or an adult under normal conditions of upbringing. One can “order” the colour of the eyes, of the skin, of the hair, maybe the shape of the nose or even the size of the nails. But is that all there is to it? The influence of the food and living habits of the pregnant woman on the health of the progeny is again not taken into account. Mental conditions, emotions and other human sensitive features like love, affection, tenderness or grace are not determined at the laboratory table. What about the very act of intimate relationship between a woman and her beloved man? Is the laboratory going to arrange such experience in a test tube or Petri dish? What about the biochemical, physiological, mental, bioenergetic and other implications of a woman who has been subjected to such artificial implantation of a “known” (to whom?) human pro embryo?
Responsible parenthood needs more than the implantation of cells. The hereditary qualities of ovules and sperms selected for test tube fertilization may contain hidden genes or gene pools. Their expression is unpredictable. The metabolic, cytoplasmic and nuclear alteration or changes that may occur during the laboratory manipulations have been ignored, so far. The consequences of such influences (iatrogenesis) should be taken into serious consideration.
In short, we can safely say that an in depth revision of the whole concept of biotechnology or, at least, genetic engineering, especially in relation to human beings, is urgently required, before jumping into hasty conclusions leading to lucrative commercial exploitation, complex legal battles or religious controversies.
Instead of draining one’s resources, energy and time in this kind of genetic engineering, if only we could give serious attention to a natural, holistic manner of simple living, preventive education would become the essential key to human well-being. The answer to today’s human problems is not for us to delink ourselves further from the laws of Nature. Instead of continuing to exploit Nature in the reckless and arrogant way man has done for decades, what is needed is to avail ourselves of the generous natural resources within our reach in this planet. More so in the tropics, where these resources are abundant, with climatic, edaphic and biotic factors most favourable. On a just and equitable basis these resources may also be available for global use. This is why the tropics should be considered as the first world.
If only we were to use proper clean technology without toxic residues, to tap these resources, humanity would have a better future and avert the genetic collapse of the human species.
By way of example, for the past 25 years in the tropical areas, I have been associated to a grass-root natural health movement, which by its balanced use of medicinal plants, food and healthy life- style habits, has helped hundreds of thousands of people to substantially improve their health -including cure from ailments considered incurable by conventional medicine, in a very cost- effective way.
The reflections presented in this article are meant to contribute to a wider discussion about the grave perils and flaws of genetic engineering. Man cannot elevate himself above natural laws, but he has to remain subject to them. Present humanity’s great misfortunes stem from its arrogant de-linking from natural laws. Contrary to what genetic engineering suggests, the solution lies in reversing the existing situation to live again in harmony with Nature, for real development of living beings in general and the human species in particular.
Paper presented at Third World Network Workshop on Redefining Science and Biotechnology. PENANG, MALAYASIA 1994.
AUTOMATICALLY BAPTIZING AND CLASSIFYING DEVICE (ABCD)
Science demands clarity and precision. The technological advancements should be properly exploited for easy manipulation of the basic compilation-retrieval method used in descriptive botany. It is proposed that the homogeneous phytographic information be
converted into numbers representing a specific code suitable for electronic documentation, with corresponding phonetic equivalents serving for oral communication. While doing so, each deme would receive individual code, its name (naming) with full significance, and would be grouped automatically with related units (classifying). The need, at a global level, for revisions of phytografic concepts and terminology as well as uniform adoption of this system for far reaching results is stressed.
Correct identification and precise nomenclature are of fundamental importance for any process of systematic data accumulation and retrieval
as well as for effective communication. This becomes all the more emphatic when one considers Biological Sciences in general and Botany in particular. Depending on the aim of the identifier, one or few characters and their states are sufficient, no doubt, to identify a given object: but, for scientific purposes, information available on as many characters and their states as possible, gives a better picture of the entire complex. For practical purposes, once identified,
each taxon should receive its name.
In botany, the Binomial System of Nomenclature (thanks to the ingenious
methods of Linnaeus, of XVIII century) provides an instrument to
represent in two epithets the sum of phenotypical (at that time this term was not in use) expression based mainly on the holotype. The extent and volume of data accumulated following Linnaeus technique becomes evident
when we consider the number of Herbaria known (see Index Herbariorum) as well as those unknown together with the descriptive literature, classical and modern, on the subject. The energetic and enthusiastic explorers of the 18th and 19th centuries, combined with those of the 20th century, have contributed enormously in time and space, to know more about the tropical floras. These descriptive data, however
precious, have several obvious setbacks such as: Diversity of criteria regarding the taxonomic categories; heterogeneity of authors and their concepts; incorporation of new data within the obsolete framework; the duplicity of taxa creation with the inevitable problem of synonymy, homonym and priority questions, not to speak of the time, energy and expenditure
involved in the critical reinvestigations; the human nature to
perpetuate his/her name in the taxonomic literature; loss of original herbarium collections, field notes, manuscripts, etc.; rediscovery of old names of the taxa, bound by the rules on priority, retro-activeness and
validity of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
The never ending exploration, extensive and intensive, is still
advancing into the hitherto inaccessible regions of the tropics, thanks mainly to the modern transportation, communication media and computer
technology. But the basic problem has expanded beyond measure, into chaotic levels.
On the other hand, after discussing the empirical situations that existed with reference to the botanical nomenclature, some sort of agreement was reached in the form of International Code of Botanical Nomenclature for use among the botanists of the world. Unfortunately, the constant modifications, often quite significant, make it
uncomfortable to maintain uniform criteria for ever. At one time the botanist may be quite right in applying the Code but due to later changes in some of its Articles, the process is likely to be wrong.
Proposals for the amendment of the Articles, Recommendations,
principles, etc., for conservation or rejection of names are still on the increase (compare the number of proposals in the Nomenclature Sessions at
Leningrad 1975 as well as at Sydney, 1981). Furthermore, there is no effective means of supervision to see that the contents of the Code are strictly enforced. The retroactiveness of the Code makes it all the more
vulnerable due to uncovering of old literature hitherto unknown or the very
modifications in the Code itself. The heterogeneity among the users and the
specialists completes the rest.
Another point for concern is the presence or usage of vague, less precise or even inapplicable terms which elude exact definition so much required in scientific language. The basic terminology employed by the European authors of the past, especially during the 18th and 19th centuries, is the latinized form of words and expressions drawn from diverse sources and contexts, perhaps convenient to some extent at that time (Stearn 1966). With the advancement of knowledge, both in space and time, existing terminology tends to be helpless if not inadequate, especially when the precise expression is the essence of scientific thought, for phytographic purposes at a global level.
The incorporation of current notions on phytogenetics, especially the phenotype-genotype concept, ecophysiology, phytochemistry,
phytogeography, and related camps of inquiry into the organism as a biological entity, makes the situation for the classical taxonomists all the more
precarious, if not impossible. The phylogenetic guise, based mainly on fragmentary evidence, assumptions and presumptions, concocted according to the individual whims and fancies, many a time even at the formative stage of the student of botany, may hide the scene for a while. This
emptiness, when discovered, might be a blow beyond salvation. The contempt of the budding botanists, if not frustration, is sufficient to repel him from botany forever. The eternal confrontation between the alpha and omega taxonomists summarized in terms of taxonomic species concept and biological species concept, respectively, manifests the hollowness of both classical and phylogenetic views.
To overcome these drawbacks in taxonomy, nomenclature, classification and documentation, an attempt is made to develop a device that would automatically baptize and classify given objects, and in doing so, serve to accumulate the available information incomplete in some
specific aspects, would also be indicated for future investigation.
SIMILARITY IN THE NAME INDICATES CLOSENESS
DISSIMILARITY INDICATES DISTANCE
Fig. 5. 1
The gamut of previously selected characters and their corresponding states, expressed by the diversity of organisms,
constitutes the basic tool required for the construction of this device. The
available information on the object, (ecological, structural and functional, including genetically ones) is arranged in logical sequence (Fig. 1) . For practical purposes 18 characters are taken into consideration,
each with 18 or 9 states (Fig. 2).
Fig. 5. 2
The sequence of characters being artificial for convenience, odd
positions will have 18 states, whereas even positions will have 9 states each. Those characters with less number of states take even positions whereas
those with more number of states occupy odd positions. Each character state is represented by a number, for the time being integers,
corresponding to the taxon in question. The character-position relationship remaining
constant, the corresponding states become comparable and hence the uniformity regarding the data recordings.
For mechanical recording, the numbers are useful whereas phonetic symbols help in the effective communication in the scientific world. This is the reason why phonetic equivalents replace the numbers.
For convenience, consonants are chosen at the odd positions, and
vowels/diphthongs at the even positions. (Fig. 3). Provisions are made to locate the lack of information at any position with the insertion of a zero in number and with a “Q” phonetically. This would facilitate future lines of investigation.
REVISE CONCEPTS AND TERMINOLOGY
Choose 18 characters and their states in 2 sets of 9 each at 18 or 9 variables each establish positions in a logical sequence
Select phonetic equivalents (18 consonants at odd and 9 vowel/diphthongs
at even positions.)
Indicate unknown state of any character by a o (zero) in number or in q in letter
Substitute appropriate number/letter as and when information becomes available. this permits the corrections to the already established units to more exploration/wider range. store adequately for later use.
Fig. 5. 3
This codified procedure avoids all the defects of the existing Systems of classification and nomenclature. Furthermore, the expanded version of the code would provide a technical description or even a suitable illustration, thus giving full significance to the name and its
hierarchy. There is no question of synonymy or homonym because the number of possible permutations provides a very wide range without repetition (in the order of 7. 7 x 1019 ). Regional recompilations could be fed to a centralized computer for convenience of global handling, avoiding the present day barriers in communication (delay in
publication, distribution methods, language and geographical distance, etc.); it should reduce the excessive costs in the documentation side as well. The device has application, subject to necessary adjustments, to any taxon to be named or classified, not necessarily plants.
However, the implementation of such a device should be preceded by fulfillment of the following obvious conditions:
Revision of the basic terminology that would facilitate maximum expression with minimum effort for use in photography.
Selection of characters and their states which would be most suitable for use at a global level.
Complete unanimity among the users to adopt such a device to obtain the best results and maximum benefits.
STEARN W. T.
: Botanical Latin (London U. K.; Thomas Nelson & Sons)
Reprinted from PHYTOMORPHOLOGY, Vol. 34, Nos. 1-4, March-December, 1984 Issued March 31, 1985, pp. 78-81.
The spatial and temporal discontinuity of tracheary elements-tracheids, vessels or xylem fibers- poses structural barriers for the conduction presumably occurring through these elements. Treating such a tissue as “conducting tissue” or “vascular tissue” is a conceptual error. In this paper, therefore, it is argued that all physiological activities, specifically the conduction of solutes from the surroundings to within the plant body or vice versa, can occur only in the symplast. The apoplast is a consequence of degeneration of protoplasts, probably due to an accumulation of toxic metabolites either in the form of non-convertible or re-convertible organic compounds. In order to explain structure in relation to function plant anatomists and physiologists have been engaged in studies related to conduction in plants (Bollard 1960, Esau 1977, Evert 1982, Fahn 1982, Grew 1982, Metcalfe and Chalk 1979, Zimmermann and Milburn 1975). Entry of raw materials into the plant body, its translocation all over the organism, mode of utilization, release of energy and the synthesis of metabolic products, their translocation and transformation etc. are topics of much interest, which have been discussed extensively. Very few attempts are made to present the process as a whole. Both causes and effects should be considered in each process. All aspects of knowledge should collectively lead to obvious conclusions without any scope for contradiction.
The raw materials needed for metabolism in a plant should come from its surroundings. The nutritional demands vary from time to time and phase to phase in a plant. Due to practical limitations small plants or cuttings are used for experimentation. Quantitative and qualitative measurements may be made in relation to the growth of the plant body by controlling external conditions like climate, substratum, air, water etc. The metabolic process within the plant body may be measured indirectly by biochemical or biophysical methods (For example, quantifying the oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide released, increase in volume, shape, density, weight, number of cells, their arrangement etc.) The energy consumed or released may be calculated to an approximation using some or all parameters, usually with the help of biostatistical methods.
In spite of the availability of voluminous literature, so far there is no satisfactory explanation regarding the medium or modus operandi of conduction in plants. Few speculative hypotheses have been put forward but no conclusive proof is given (Bollard 1960, Nobel 1974, Peel 1974). But why? Theoretical or conceptual errors might have given rise to faulty techniques, faulty techniques might, in turn, have contributed to the limited points of view; limited information hinders the total vision.
Theoretically the plant body has to be considered as an organism in a continuous vital process. Due to structural and functional differences, unlike animals, in plants there is no question of “maturity” at any level of organization. What is observed is a process of ontogenetic differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration. Unlike animals, plants do not take in food nor possess various structural and functional systems. The absence of such “systems” in plants implies a physiological difference. (See next chapter).
In an organism with millions of cells individual cells should not be treated as separate entities. Only for the sake of understanding is this distinction made at this point. When the plant body commences either in the form of a zygote (sporophyte) or a spore (gametophyte) there is an initial stage of naked protoplast which secretes a cell wall of its own all around. At each successive division the protoplast is partially separated by the formation of the cell wall only in one facet. However, plasmodesmata maintain the continuity of the protoplasm. In other words, in any given cell all the facets are not necessarily produced at the same time and the walls do not separate the protoplasts totally. Structurally similar cells may exhibit physiological differences; it is obvious that all vital processes occur only in the protoplast. Plant cells are classified as living or dead on the basis of the presence or absence of protoplasts within them. When the protoplast is absorbed or dissolved, the cell wall remains and is considered to be a dead cell for all practical purposes. Living and dead cells may coexist in a plant, whereas in an animal the dead cells are constantly removed from its body. Also, in animals the tissue demarcation is evident due to structural differences between the constituent cells. The absence of plasmodesmata in animals is accompanied by the absence of cell walls. Therefore, theoretically there is no structural comparison between plant and animal bodies; it should be so functionally as well.
In plants there is a synthetic process in the reception, conversion and accumulation of electromagnetic energy into chemical energy after enjoying the “vital energy” (bioenergy) during the metabolism. Whereas in animals, this accumulated chemical energy is released and partly utilized during vital biochemical reactions.
When the plant body is perceived in this fashion as a continuum, the perspective changes. The ontogeny should be taken into consideration as a whole, both in space and time, and not as a few instances here and there in this process. Partial views do not yield a complete picture. Conduction in plants has been studied but with faulty techniques. The methodology used to obtain evidence in support of the hypotheses proposed so far on the xylem transport warrants some comments. Two methods are described and are generally employed to obtain ‘xylem sap’ for analysis. In both cases assumptions and presumptions contribute to the factual errors.
1. “Xylem” is taken for granted as a conducting tissue and hence the exudate is taken from it to study conduction.
2. Little or no attention has been given to the structural complexity involving different cell types that make up the “xylem“, although elsewhere in plant anatomy elaborate descriptions are made regarding the protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem. They differ in their origin, cytology, cell types and contents.
3. No effort is made to identify the element from which the “xylem sap: is obtained. In the literature when xylem vessel is considered as a conducting element no reference is made as to whether or not the adjacent xylem parenchyma is involved in the process. In what way does it differ if the xylem is devoid of vessels?
4. Structural continuity of the xylem is not considered with reference to the entire plant. In other words, the three dimensional distribution of xylem parenchyma, xylem vessel members, xylem fibers and xylem tracheids in the protoxylem, metaxylem and secondary xylem is generally ignored.
5. In one and the same vessel the constituent cell-initials near the meristems contain protoplasts, whereas farther away mere cell walls remain.
6.What is observed in laboratory plant materials (limited in quantity and quality) is presumed to occur in nature.
One of the techniques called “root bleeding” obtains exudates from the “cut ends nearest to the base of the stem.” In anatomical literature this region corresponds to the hypocotylary area in most of the plants studied. In taxa where the cotyledons remain embedded within the seed coat during germination, the first internode corresponds to this region. In monocotyledonous taxa this may be the cotyledonary node. This is the so called “transition region” where there is “splitting, twisting, torsion, fusion, reorientation etc.” of the “vascular bundles” or there is anastomosis of “conducting elements.” In any case, it is impossible to isolate “xylem.” This situation may be further complicated in diotyledonous taxa with the onset of activity in the “vascular cambium” to produce “secondary xylem” not completely distinguishable from the metaxylem. In the case of clonal multiplication, as is frequently done in horticulture, the adventitious roots arise from the callus produced from the dedifferentiated parenchymatous cells of the shoot. At this region, as in any other part of the plant, the “xylem” consists of cells with protoplasts and those devoid of the same, usually intermixed. Therefore, attempts to obtain “root exudates from cut ends nearest to the base of the stem” requires refined techniques which can verify the source of the exudate with precision. In science where accuracy and precision are basic principles such techniques are examples of how they should not be!
The second technique used obtains xylem exudates from the sap wood. “Recently matured xylem elements” sounds attractive but is not precise. First of all, to locate the “mature” elements and to sharply circumscribe the cell(s) involved will be a perpetual problem when the plant body is perceived as a continuum; dynamic vitality is the secret of totipotency. After division, differentiation, specialization and in some cases degeneration a cell derived from the meristematic region becomes “mature.” While an adjacent cell is still at the division process closer to the meristematic region, the derived cell farther away might exhibit all or some of the stages of differentiation, specialization or degeneration of the protoplast. Only by the deposition of the secondary wall material with the absorption or degeneration of the protoplasts the tracheary cells attain their “maturity.” Again, it is to be noted that in xylem the cells adjacent to a vessel may be parenchyma, tracheid or even another vessel member, not necessarily at the same stage of maturity. Whatever be the case, there is no horizontal perforation plate between the vessel member and the adjacent cell(s). When three dimensional growth process in plants is conceived as such, the longitudinal as well as the horizontal protoplasmic continuity will have to be taken into consideration. The intercalating cell walls (cellulosic ones deposited secondarily after the elongation and adjustment of the cells) may partially interrupt the protoplasmic continuity. If a cell has attained physiological maturity all activities related to the metabolism should be located in that particular cell. This implies that a lot of the biochemical and enzymatic processes can take place only if the protoplast is intact. In other words, symplastic activity carries out these vital processes, whereas the apoplastic parts of the plant cannot participate actively in such processes. Both climatic and edaphic conditions play an important role in the process of plant growth. The phenophase at which each plant is found at the time of obtaining the samples of the “xylem sap” is also of importance. In the tropics, where there is apparently no such seasonal changes as in temperate regions, plants of the same taxon may exhibit different phenophases, sometimes even in one and the same individual. The “xylem sap” constitutes part of living protoplasm since it contains metabolic products like amino-acids, carbohydrates, enzyme systems, growth regulators etc. (Peel, 1974). Water-conducting vessels or tracheids, devoid of protoplast when “mature”, at best should contain water and dissolved salts (raw materials) but no finished products. In the literature no mechanism is explained how the sap from the symplast gets converted into water and dissolved salts when it enters the apoplast.
Thus, both techniques used which obtained the exudate or sap either from the cut ends of roots nearest to the base of the stem or from the recently matured xylem elements of the sap wood, present theoretical and practical drawbacks.
The aphid technique to study the phloem exudate depends on the selectivity of these insects. It is assumed that the phloem is the conducting tissue. The protoplasmic ultra structure involving endoplasmic reticulum, organelles, nuclear material and other cytoplasmic inclusions are aspects not taken into consideration to explain the functional details of the tissue.
Evert (1982) says “The tracheary elements of the xylem have rigid walls and lack protoplasts at maturity. These structural characteristics facilitate the rapid movement of water and dissolved solutes under considerable tension induced largely by transpirational loss of water from the surface of the leaves.” There is no proof in the literature for this statement. Stem cuttings devoid of leaves do not transpire but there is absorption and conduction within. It is interesting, however, that the same author, with reference to phloem, considers “In order to have a clear understanding of translocation it is essential to correlate the structure with the function of the tissues and cell types concerned.” If this is true for phloem, criteria should not vary when xylem is under consideration.
Another aspect of the language used in descriptive anatomy is worth considering here. Although these statements are common to any text book on general botany or plant anatomy for the sake of clarity the following sentences are quoted from Fahn (1982):
Page 188: “…..the primary vascular cylinder is interrupted at each node by the exit of one or more bundles that enter the leaves.”
Page 189: “…..it is necessary to study more accurately the nature of the traces and to follow their passage downwards in the stem.”
Page 190: “…..Leaf trace bundles was used to designate those that directly connect the leaf and stele. Cauline bundle refers to those bundles that form the major vascular system of the stem and which may anastomose and give rise to leaf traces. The term common bundle has been used for those bundles that run unbranched for a relatively long distance in the stem and which eventually terminate in a leaf trace.” “…..the vascular system of the stem can be interpreted as being a system of leaf traces that continue downwards in the stem for one or more internodes where they fuse with the leaf traces of the lower nodes.”
Page 193: “…..These penetrate deep into the interior of the stem and then pass to the periphery in lower nodes.”
A reader of such statements interprets this as if here is a physical movement or material motion. No effort is being made to explain how, during, ontogeny, differentiation and specialization as a process produce such configuration of cells or groups of cells in the plant body, or how the final external or internal structure appears to be a network formed of cells or groups of cells in a specific manner as a consequence of morphogenetic expression. “Dichotomously branched veins” commonly found in ferns again refers to the final expression and has nothing to do with the dichotomy produced by the splitting of the apical meristem into two equal halves each developing into a branch. Whether it is a conceptual error or the limitation of the language is the question. Such ambiguous interpretations should be avoided in science. Other terms equally ambiguous are: “conducting strand.” “vascular tissue,” “higher plants or lower plants.” These are products of speculation or anthropomorphism (see Font Quer 1973 for other terms). The description of the “transition zone,” as exhibiting “splitting, twisting, torsion, fusion, etc. of bundles” is misleading. First of all the roots have no such bundles, because the xylem and phloem elements are not found in the same radius, secondly the individual cells constituting the xylem and phloem units do not suffer such torture during differentiation, specialization or degeneration.
It is again impossible to detect vascular bundles down below the stem, especially in trees or other perennials where the onset of the secondary growth is very close to the apical meristem, sometimes only a few plastochrons below. Such being the case, tracing the individual bundles several nodes below is next to impossible. The nodal plate formation, especially in monocotyledonous taxa, is a typical example to show that the bundles do not “run” beyond one internode. In plants devoid of leaves the internodes present xylem and phloem in distinct patterns as bundles where it is again impossible to talk about leaf traces. The presence of intercalary meristems at the nodal region, as in many monocotylonous taxa, or at the base of the primordial of lateral appendage or at the base of the fruit stalk or even the fruit itself is a significant feature. There are meristematic cells or in other words, cells that have the capacity to undergo division and differentiation interrupt the continuity of xylem and/or phloem strands. The network of xylem and phloem elements within the leaf blade is a product of differentiation and specialization in situ. The final form may look like a profusely branching network. Even then the direction of vascular differentiation is described as basipetal. That is to say that the xylem or phloem elements get “mature” at the leaf tip and then progressively downward. Hence, the last region where xylem elements get differentiated will be the leaf base corresponding to the intercalary meristem. The so-called leaf trace within the leaf differentiates basipetally but within the stem acropetally. In other words, the meristematic region gets differentiated finally. The continuity of the xylem or phloem is interrupted accordingly.
In tropical trees it is common to observe the intact leaves on stems and branches that have undergone secondary thickening. In these cases the vascular cambium has produced a sufficient amount of secondary xylem and secondary phloem between the primary phloem of the stem, thus occupying the region of leaf gap. In other words, once the cambial activity is evident the xylem of the stem does not maintain organic connections with the primary xylem of the leaves. The cambial activity is so extensive that the primary phloem of the stem is either obliterated or even thrown away as “periderm” following the activity of the cork cambium. How then is it possible to maintain the water supply through the xylem? If symplastic and apoplastic paths could be combined, as has been done in the recent literature, special mechanisms will have to be proposed for transfer of water and dissolved salts repeatedly from the symplast to the apoplast and vice versa.
Other structural considerations serve to clarify the process. For example:
1. Xylem parenchyma cells occur in between the protoxylem vessel elements and the metaxylem vessel elements (may be any other tracheary elements). Within the desmogen those elements which differentiate and specialize with secondary wall thickenings are optically distinguishable from the neighbouring elements devoid of such peculiarities.
2. Protoxylem element (irrespective of the type of element) gets obliterated either by stretching of the primary body or by the rupture of the secondary wall material as a consequence of the stretching. The protoplast is already used up during the cell- ontogeny. In monocotyledonous taxa, where these elements were present, empty spaces (lacunae) occur at maturity. These cells or groups of cells along the same location nearer the meristem may have protoplasts and hence physiological activities are possible in this region.
3. Away from the meristem, on the other hand, when there is additional differentiation and specialization, metaxylem elements are formed out of the desmogen. These metaxylem elements are not in longitudinal continuity with the protoxylem elements, nor are they found adjacent to one another. At least the vessel elements are separated by other types of cells in between.
4. When the fascicular cambium is present (the undifferentiated cells of the demsogen in between the differentiated ones), the production of “secondary” elements out of these fusiform initials is in the proximity of the metaxylem. The gradation is smooth that one can hardly distinguish between the late formed metaxylem element and the early formed secondary xylem element. Moreover, the differentiated and specialized cells in either case may be tracheids, fibers, vessel members or parenchyma cells at `maturity.’
5. In monocotyledonous taxa where the primary growth is maintained throughout, a bundle sheath formed of sclerenchymatous cells is common; this is best seen in grasses. In order to explain the conduction through the xylem or, for that matter, phloem elements, it is necessary to show how water and the dissolved solutes traverse through the dead cells (sclerenchymatous ones), longitudinally and transversely. In such case even the sclerenchymatous bundle sheath should have been called “conducting tissue.”
6. The absence of a distinct arrangement of bundles or even the separation of xylem and phloem elements at the nodal region is quite interesting compared to the clear-cut bundle appearance at the inter nodal region. The anastomoses of these elements at each node under primary growth at the apical regions of the shoot should be noted.
7. The interpolation of newly differentiated and specialized elements derived from lateral meristem in the axis of the plants (in dicotyledonous and gymnospermous taxa) between the primary xylem and primary phloem, maintains the discontinuity.
8. The early onset of cambial activity produces significant quantities of secondary xylem and phloem elements in between the primary elements of the lateral appendages of limited growth and the primary body of the stem axis. This separation of primary elements, even if the individual cell continuity is overlooked for the time being, is of great importance at the time of consideration of these elements as conducting in function. The elements of the primary phloem may get differentiated to “cortical fibers” when the cortex is intact or it may be sloughed off as periderm after the activity of the phellogen. At the same time the primary phloem elements in the appendage are still alive and are actively participating in the physiological functions of the protoplast.
9. The presence of tracheary elements and phloem elements in the mesophyll of the leaf blade is interpreted as an evidence of conduction. However, it is interesting to note that such arrangements are not seen in cladodes where the cortical cells are replete with chloroplasts. Does it mean that when there are cladodes no conduction is required to supply the soil solution to the place of synthesis?
10. Cut flowers or stem cuttings stay fresh in water in spite of the absence of absorbing root ends.
11. At the embryonic level there is xylem and phloem differentiation but the water and soil solution is not absorbed nor conducted from the surroundings through the `vascular strands.’ The energy required is available either from the surrounding endosperm or is stored in the cotyledon(s). The xylem and phloem elements in the embryo do not have organic connection with the xylem and phloem of the plant bearing the seed or fruit.
12. In all aquatic plants (whether attached to the substrate, suspended or free-floating), though to a lesser extent, there is differentiation of xylem and phloem elements.
13. In grafts the success depends on the callus formation and the establishment of organic continuity between the protoplasts rather than the connection between the xylem or phloem elements.
14. Colouring substances like safranin normally used to optically distinguish the tracheary elements of the xylem have special chemical reactions with the wall material deposited. Any experiment wherein the walls get coloured does not “prove” that the conduction is through those cells but only signifies that the colouring matter has reached that region of the organism, and consequently reacts with the wall material making the wall optically distinguishable from the neighbouring cells where such reaction has not taken place. The colour is not manifest in the protoplast even when safranin or other colouring substances pass through the same. This only proves that the chemical reaction has not taken place or the intensity of the colour is too little for observation or that the concentration of the colouring matter is too dilute. With these points under consideration the following conclusions have been drawn:
1. The absorption of water and solutes dissolved in it or in air occurs through the living cells at the surface of the organism.
2. Once within the protoplast, the raw materials serve in the metabolism of the organisms.
3. When the supply of raw materials is abundant the protoplast increases in size, improves in quality – within the limits of specific range and may divide partially to maintain more physiologically active units, the cells. Each derived cell is a continuation of the previous one through plasmodesmata. In other words, the wall formation along only one facet at a time is incomplete because of the presence of pits.
4. Each living cell (meristematic, parenchymatous, epidermal, companion cells, ray cells, phellodermal cells, lenticels etc.) utilize whatever raw material it needs, for the specific physiological activity it has to perform, from the absorbed solution. The raw materials not used and the metabolic products formed within the protoplast pass on to the adjacent cells through plasmodesmata.
The limited number of mutilated and degenerated protoxylem elements are incapable of transporting enormous quantity of water and solvents absorbed by the root hairs.
5. All such movements are possible due to the “vital force” or the “bioenergy” within the protoplast.
6. Tracheids, vessel members or vascular elements and sclerenchymatous cells are formed by the deposition of metabolic products or waste material of the organism.
7. These cell walls, frames devoid of any protoplast, compactly arranged at regular patterns provide the organism with necessary mechanical strength and also serve as reservoirs of waste materials. They do not participate in any live processes including conduction.
Literature cited 1. Bollard, E. G. 196 Transport in xylem, Ann. Rev. Plant Physiol. 11: 141-166. 2. Esau, K. 197 Anatomy of Seed Plants, 2nd Ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 3. Evert, R. F. 1982 Sieve-tube structure in relation to function. Bioscience 32 32 (10); 789-795. 4. Fahn, A. 1982 Plant Anatomy, 3rd Ed., Pergamon Press, Oxford. 5. Font Quer, P. 197 Diccionario de Botanica. Editorial Labor, Barcelona, Spain. 6. Grew, N. 1682 The Anatomy of Plants, Johnson Reprint Corporation, New York (1965). 7. Metcalfe, C. R. and L. Chalk 1979 Anatomy of Dicotyledons. 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 8. Nobel, P. S. 1974 Introduction to Biophysical Plant Physiology, W. H. Freeman and Company, San Francisco. 9. Peel, A. J. 1974 Transport of Nutrients in Plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 10. Zimmermann, M. H. and J. A. Milburn (Eds.) 1975 Transport in plants I. Pholem transport. Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
Guest Lecture at “Vanashree” : Association of Botany Teachers of Mangalore University, Mulky, on 30th August, 1987.
PLANTS AND ANIMALS
Living organisms differ from one another in many ways. The structural *
and functional dynamism leads to characteristic individuality without *
possible duality. However, in the plant kingdom the totipotency of *
the protoplasm makes it possible to obtain clonal multiplication by *
means of <F14P11MI>in vitro<F255P255D> or <F14P11MI>in vivo<F255P255D>
techniques. Chimeral peculiarities and keen and careful observation *
combined with special selection methods by intelligent farmers have *
added to the number of cultivators even among such clonal multiplication
Plant protoplasm is in constant expansion by incorporation of new *
components from the surrounding air, water, soil and light energy. *
The energy requirements for normal functioning of the organism is *
obtained and used up during the process. Several fresh components *
are constantly added on to the protoplasm as excess or metabolic *
wastes or reserves. The overall picture emerging from this process *
should be considered as growth. In order to accommodate this addition *
of new protoplasm the plant body should expand and increase in biomass.
The meristematic activity maintained by the protoplasm leads to two *
kinds of expansion externally and internally. External expansion of *
the plant body is attained by proliferation of foliage surface into *
a number of smaller appendages of limited growth known as “leaves”. *
Their pattern, shape, size, etc. are specific within given range of *
variability. This necessitates new branches and branch systems. In *
order to maintain this new expansion and to support the branch system *
the main axis requires sufficient strength and girth. More and more *
finished products require transportation and storing capacity in an *
organised fashion. This presses for a new arrangements. Tangential *
divisions take place in specific cells (known as cambium layer)
the efficiency for that purpose. The waste material being toxic to *
the protoplasm gets transformed into wall material and gets located *
along the cell walls providing space and strength to the organism.
The gamut of such establishment in plant body is known as wood material
where sizable quantity of carbohydrates like lignin, cellulose, xylin, *
etc. are deposited.
The entire plant body is normally formed of a single protoplasm with *
partial septation called cell walls delimiting much of the metabolic *
functions within these partial walls known as “cells”. Any living *
protoplast (vegetable) has totipotency capable of expansion into new *
organism. The organisation of the plant body with or without these *
partial septations is common. A multicellular organisation like that *
of a tree is considered as a complex system whereas coenocytic nature *
such as observed in algae is considered as less specialised or even *
as primitive by those who speculate with phylogeny.
The onset of meiosis in plants is preceded by complete septation whereas
during mitosis only partial septation is the rule.
@BODYG.PKB = Vegetative branches arising from root stocks as shoots *
is common among flowering plants. In the concerned literature this *
phenomenon is referred to as “root connections” in tropical trees, *
especially in the tropical rain forests. Monocotyledonous plants in *
general present subterranean root stock or rhizome. Among Dicotyledons *
this phenomenon is observed in the following genera:
Citrus, Ficus, Azadirachta. Aegle, Artocarpus, Spondias, Melia Murraya,
Psidium, Platymiscium, Lantana, Clerodendron, Crescentia etc.<F255P255D>
Regarding the ploidy or number of chromosomes it is interesting to *
note that the zygotic nucleus is diploid due to the fusion of two *
gametes. Endosperm nucleus is triploid right from the beginning.
polyploidy is observed in derived cells such as epidermal ones or *
cambial initials or derivatives like tracheal cells. How such changes *
occur or how they influence the rest of the functions is not known.
In plants, the spiral energy field in each cell leads the deposition *
of cellulosic wall material in a specific pattern until a limit
by its function within. When the function comes to a minimal expression
coinciding with the deposition of further wall materials until the *
cell gets completely emptied.
The presence of various kinds of meristematic activity provides
of protoplasm or new cells in continuation of the energy field until *
there is a change in the energy field which in turn transforms the *
unlimited growth to a limited growth. This state may have influence *
from various external and/or internal factors. Depending on the
the relative time/space relationship varies and the biodiversity
The mitotic division produces partially partitioned proto-plasts known *
as two derived cells each with specific potentialities and hence
In plants, meiosis has a different aspect than in animals. The sex *
in plants is functional efficiency whereas in animals there is also *
structural distinction to a larger extent.
The seed bears the link between the two generations. In the case of *
meiosis, however the partition of protoplast is complete and hence *
protoplasts get totally separated to constitute distinct cells.
@CENTFIG.PKB = Fig. 7. 1 Dynamic Nature
A living organism is a dynamic process, spirally extending, asymmetrical
unit pattern limited in space and time. This process commences with *
gametic fusion and has a natural end known as death. The process
energy for growth, maintenance, repair and deterioration, intake fresh *
air and reproduce while alive.
The daily rotation of the planet on its polar axis exposes an area *
on the surface to the sunlight during day time. During night time *
the shadow of the planet coincides with the tail end atmosphere exposing
the surface to the star light. Any object on the surface whether
immobile or mobile gets automatically rotated along with the surface. *
The 360 degrees of this rotation takes about 23 hours 56 minutes and *
@SONG.PKB = <F2P10MI>PLANTS<F255P255D>
@BIBBUK.PKB = <MI>ANIMALS<D>
@COL1.PKB = 1. The process is an integration of electromagnetic energy *
in combination with air, water and dissolved salt by conversion into *
chemical energy compounds as metabolic products constituting plant *
body, including reception of raw materials, combination of the same, *
conversion into convenient compounds as well as benefiting with
energy and finally conserving the excesses to constitute the biomass.
@COL2.PKB = 1. Disintegration of biomass and utilization of energy *
sources is the basic principle.
@COL1.PKB = 2. Accordingly, anatomical and histological delimitations *
are not clear-cut so as to detect from outside nor from inside. There *
is no distinction into organs, systems and tissue systems. Not even *
individual cells are separable one from the other. The protoplasm *
is continuous with partial septation during cell wall deposition the *
areas remaining as pits. Only in special circumstances a complete *
septation is observed as for example during sporogenesis or
Division of labour is reduced thus enhancing the physiological
This process automatically places individual “units” with structural *
similarity but functional diversity.
@COL1.PKB = 3. Ontogenetic changes are common with structural or
diversity and capacity to reversion of viable functional units.
phases are not easily demarcated and vitality may be
@COL2.PKB = 3. Ontogenic changes are structurally and functionally *
irreversible as expressed in terms of clear cut phases like infancy, *
childhood, youth, adult, senility etc…. Vitality differs at each *
phase although gradually in some cases and sharply in others.
@COL1.PKB = 4. Protoplasmic continuity is evident right from the initial
one- celled structure independent of the parent protoplasm although *
this remains there for support is some cases.<R>*
However, exchange of metabolic products between the parent protoplasm *
and the next generation protoplasm is available for convenience of *
@COL2.PKB = 4. Protoplasmic continuity is not seen right from the *
earliest stage even when the young ones are dependent on the parent *
for support or nutrients.
@COL1.PKB = 5. Totipotency of plant protoplasm should be considered *
as its immortality without any comparison with animal protoplasm.
@COL2.PKB = <R>*
fish, earthworms or similar animals, such animals are limited in number.
Among mammals, some areas like bone marrow or gonads maintain
or better still, meristematic activity to some extent.
@COL1.PKB = 6. Potential genetic material in the zygote does not produce
apparent hormonal systems or expressions since the organism is not *
designed for such demarcation.
@COL2.PKB = 6. Potential genetic material early during ontogeny
as differentiation of structural specialization and in many cases *
functional determinations. This process, once initiated, may continue *
during later stages of ontogeny gradually or all of a sudden. For *
example, meiotic division decides the sex of the individual. Early *
meiosis initiates the differentiation of a female body whereas delayed *
(in some cases even after 12 years) meiotic divisions lead to a male *
@COL1.PKB = 7. Some organisms present one kind of gametes with specific
organs whether producing them only once in life time or repeatedly. *
Normally, in other cases one and the same individual produces both *
types of gametes in corresponding structures with temporary duration. *
The process may be retained permanently throughout the duration of *
@COL1.PKB = 8. The absence of predetermined organs is the basis of *
totipotency combined with the structural fluidity of protoplasm *
enhances the totipotency as a phenomenon unique of its kind. The need *
of the moment for the benefit of the organism determines the type *
of division or the type of derived structures or kind of
At times, climatic, edaphic or biotic factors may determine the path *
@COL2.PKB = 8. Predetermined structure is the result of cell division, *
differentiation, specialisation and other functional
The functional maturity is specific to cells, organs, systems or spatial
and temporal distribution of division of labour.
@CENT1.HKB = PLANT GROWTH
A specific pattern produced during a particular process in a dynamic *
organism such as a plant body is the external expression of the organism
perceptible to sense organs. The internal and external causes which *
initiate this process remain unnoticeable in space and time.
When these causes are identified with letters of the alphabet a, b, *
@CENT2.PKB = Plant growth pattern = a+b+c+d+……..n.
But each cause may be sum total of several or reduced number of factors
@BSPL1.PKB = <F2P10M>a = (1+2+3+4+5……)<F255P255D>
@BSPL1.PKB = <F2P10M>b = (1-2)<F255P255D>
@BSPL1.PKB = <F2P10M>c = (1<197>2)
@BSPL1.PKB = <F2P10BJ185>:<F255P255DJ0>
@BSPL1.PKB = <F2P10MJ185>d = (1×3)<F255P255DJ0>
@BODY1.PKB = Each one of these factors may be biotic or abiotic, that *
is, climatic or edaphic in specific sequences.
Among the biotic factors those related to structure and physiological *
function play predominant roles.
The factors may be associated with plants or animals.
Protoplasmic flow gradients within the organism also are significant *
factors. Spatial location will influence the process.
Differential behaviour of cell components such as nucleus or cytoplasm *
produces variation in due course. Depending on the quality of available
nutrients, the organism presents cell division elongation, adjustment, *
differentiation, specialization, functional maturity and metabolic *
degeneration reposition among other processes.
The plant protoplasm absorbs electromagnetic energy combining it with *
air, water, as well as dissolved salts, to obtain necessary nutrients *
and metabolic energy. Excedents are efficiently located in the form *
of organic matter whether protoplasm or cell wall material.
This singular functional capacity of the plant protoplasm places the *
same as the primary producer of biomass in this biosphere. (See chapter
VI to establish a comparison with animals, which are the main consumers
The plant protoplasm produces a series of substances, besides the *
biomass in general, specific substances such as alkaloids, crystals, *
gums and resins, growth promoters, growth retarders and others.
Conduction of these components from the place of production through *
the protoplasm to the sites of conservation is highly specific and *
direction-specific. The re-conversion of these reserves whenever required
by the protoplasm and their utilization, are processes requiring
The local action, reaction and interaction followed by the final over *
all effect are all important aspects for consideration.
Proliferation of the protoplasm along a specific underlying pattern *
by sealing off certain portion of the protoplasm and expansion of *
protoplasm to accommodate the biomass produced, are considered as *
its capacity to perpetuate, or simply, totipotency.
Among the internal factors, nuclear material, genetic capacity and *
transformation speed, genetic combinations at each sexual union,
mutations due to diverse mutagens, are all significant aspects.
As a rule, those nuclei which are destined to divide to form gametes *
contain double genetic material compared to the gametic nucleus. Other *
nuclei may exhibit diverse quantities of nuclear material, a condition *
commonly known as polyploidy. The variability of nuclear material *
is of great importance in the pattern produced by the same. This
may be beneficially used in quality improvement of agricultural crops.
Symbiotic association of algae, bacteria or fungi with plants produces *
specific characteristic structural patterns in each case. Proliferation
of these organisms may occur by fragmentation or by other means. In *
lichens, the fungal partner may produce spores which germinate into *
hyphae network serving as a receptive cushion for algal spore. While *
the algal component serves as a primary producer, the fungal component *
serves as supporting consumer. A natural expression of cooperative *
movement for mutual benefit is rare enough to observe.
Among gymnosperms these may be algal or fungal association within *
the protoplasm causing coralloid roots as a specific dichotomous pattern
due to the presence of abundant algae. These algal partners should *
have special physiological means to produce biomass since they occur *
immersed in host protoplasm. The mutual action, reaction, interaction *
and final effect are all interesting processes for study.
The bacterial root nodules are proliferation products of root cortical *
tissue into nodular patterns characteristic of each variety. The
of the bacterial cells in the protoplasm right from the embryonic *
stages guarantees this symbiosis in this way, pattern specific at *
all times depending on the host.
The galls produced on the leaves, branches, nodes or internodes present
specific protoplasmic proliferation’s as a response to particular types *
of wounds, insects or other animal species which make use of the cavity
for habitat or for procreation. Repeated pasturing by sheep, goats *
and cattle produces a continuous pruning effect on grass or other *
plants with a proportionate reaction in the form of proliferation *
thus establishing a specific growth pattern.
Ornamental adjustments by frequent pruning is horticultural creativity *
of human beings just as Bonsai practices from Japan. These patterns *
are not long lasting nor are they inherited.
Birds eat fruits and the seeds get propagated through the bird
When these seeds belong to specific parasitic taxa grow on host plants,
the parasite gets established. Sometimes they grow as epiphytes and *
then after reaching a water source, generally by long hanging roots, *
establish themselves, strangling the host plants to develop
@SIDEHED.PKB = 1. Climatic Factors
The rotation movement of the planet exposes one side of the same to *
sunlight whereas the dark side corresponds to the shadow extending *
through the night half. The atmosphere, especially the gaseous and *
water vapor contents, get heated up at a faster rate than the soil *
component, while cold air flows in establishing air flow. When the *
orbital movement of the planet is also considered, this air flow may *
attain high speed winds or even hurricanes with force. The relative *
position of the planet on its helical orbit exposes specific areas *
to the sunlight and thus causes seasonal changes. Therefore, climate *
is again a sum total expression of several factors like planetary *
movements, incident sunlight varied wind speeds and directions of *
air flow. Temperature range and fluctuation on a daily basis is yet *
another factor in climatic condition.
Availability of water and air for the organism, its quality and
determine the micro -and macro- levels. The quality and quantity of *
incident light plays important role in climate determination.
@SIDEHED.PKB = 2. Edaphic Factors
Edaphic factors include the substrate, quality and quantity of available
soil and proportion of diverse minerals the particle size, water
capacity, solubility of mineral in available water, interference by *
animal or human activities like grazing or industrialization.
Planetary movements produce certain adjustments of soil, rock and *
Porosity of particles, water retention capacity, organic matter
mineral salts and their proportion, soil acidity, are other aspects *
to be considered while dealing with edaphic factors which affect plant *
Life forms with wide diversity may be observed at different
and communities. The maximum expression is present in the tropical *
rain forests with major biodiversity abundant and exuberant.
Among the seed plants, plants grow, flowers produce fruits and seeds *
and may get dried up. The seed has a hard shell covering the tender *
embryo within. The outer shell is derived from the former generation *
while the embryo comes to be the next generation. However under normal *
conditions, embryo free of shell does not remain viable for long. *
This bridging up between the two generations is a key point to indicate
the continuity of life process, with dynamic expressions of the whole.
Considerations to fraction or reduce the whole process to smaller *
units only serve for limited knowledge while analysis. For synthetic *
conclusions the total dynamic process should be taken into account.
@CENT1.HKB = LAW OF NATURE
In Nature, within a framework of space time unit, there is a dynamic *
continuum; a dynamic whole. Any organism within the biosphere
the basic functional unit of this dynamic process. However, even rocks *
change continuously. The structural and functional diversity is the *
manifestation of a sum total of internal and external factors. The *
law of nature is to exist.
No prejudice or partiality is possible in such a process. Only man- *
made laws are biased and hence serve for convenience alone. Polarity *
is yet another manifestation in natural objects. When the dynamic *
process acquires this polarity, symmetry is obtained.
Bilateral, radial or a combination of these two symmetries is sufficient
to manifest patterns specific to each variety of organisms. However, *
even there, individuality of organisms is maintained structurally *
and functionally. The so-called adult form of any living being is *
nothing but a gamut of continuously changing process with deterioration,
repair and growth. This is the reason the form, in the strict sense, *
becomes impossible for definition in absolute terms.
The quality and quantity of input and output may add to the expression *
of internal and external factors. In practice, each organization or *
object is conceived with or associated to a specific form, given names *
and even codified for communication facilities.
The onset of successive events leading to a definite form or shape *
is of interest, specially so whether the process is gradual or abrupt. *
In an attempt to understand this infinite nature, the finite human *
mind has tried to evaluate and fix up values for all. The limited *
human capacity to perceive the world through sense organs makes all *
When imitating Nature, the human kind has given a shabby example and *
a sorry figure. (Birds-airplanes; fish-submarines; snakes- trains; *
bats-radars; eyes-lenses; natural sounds-sound of music etc.)
The primordial vibration or accompanying sound waves are least
by some, ignored by others, unknown to many. Sit in a comfortable *
position but hold the backbone straight. Using both hands, close your *
lips with ring and little fingers, your nostrils with the middle ones, *
your eyes with index fingers and your ears with thumbs. Observe the *
internal sound within the living organism. This sound is heard
in the ocean, sea shells, blowing winds etc.
Understanding these natural phenomena should be the basic object of *
education. Suitable methods will have to be designed and put into *
practice to communicate the message effectively. Appropriate techniques
to fully avail the benefits without damaging the rest, should be the *
guideline for technology.
@SIDEHED.PKB = CAUSE OF BIODIVERSITY
Whole numbers in mathematical terms express quantity alone with no *
mention about the quality. Sometimes all are given equal opportunities *
or possibilities and capacity being unique, no comparison is possible *
with another. Therefore, when quality and capacity are added up to *
quantity and possibilities one can never be equal to another.
Meiosis is a live process quite significant in living organisms during *
ontogeny. A nucleus destined to divide meiotically is strategically *
located so that the division products result in haploid nuclei. The *
number of chromosomes in a given nucleus gets spread out in an
plane of the cell protoplasm. Longitudinal splitting and separation *
into opposite poles accompanied by cytoplasmic partitioning results *
in four nuclei with half the chromosome numbers as seen in the original
nucleus. First division reduces the number of chromosomes while second *
division maintains the number once reduced. When the first nuclear *
division products are identified as A and B, at second division the *
products may be designated as A1 A2 and B1 B2 for clarity.
When each one of these four develops into one gamete each four
<D>male gametes are produced. However, when it is a question of female *
gamete, normally only one out of four remains as a female gamete while *
the others get absorbed or die off. For easy distinction M1 M2 N1 *
N2 are female ones, any one becoming functional one.
@CENT2.PKB = When such gametes meet
@CENTFIG.PKB = Fig. 9. 1
These are the possible 16 different zygotes (union products) out of *
Owing to the fact that only one female gamete is functional, practically
only one zygote is formed, even when four types of male gametes are *
viable. This is the cause of biodiversity; even in the case of twins, *
they are not 100% alike.
The zygote grows into an organism in due course of time when conditions
are favorable. The pattern is specific but individuality is maintained *
throughout within the range of variability.
For example, human organism attains physiological maturity by puberty, *
but mental maturity as well as economic stability may be attained *
much later. However, the female organism is at its best physical and *
mental capacity between 24 to 36 year old. Generally, children delivered
during this interval are much healthier than those born earlier or *
A live process is dynamic, continuous, asymmetric, and limited in *
space and time. An organism is born and the body degenerates in due *
course. The underlying pattern which enables the individual to carry *
out the functions is considered as an adult. The process being
and dynamic, no attempt should have been made to fraction and describe *
different moments as if it were “normal” or “typical”.
@CENT.PKB = CHAPTER 10
@CENT1.HKB = SPIRALS
Cyclic repetitions of events one after the other in a specific sequence
in one direction may be considered as a spiral. When applied to living *
organisms as dynamic processes this spiral is of limited duration *
since the process commences with the birth of the individual and ends *
up with his death. This spiral may be limited to one expression of *
cyclic events such as birth, growth, reproduction, degeneration and *
death or a series of cyclic events in between. <F14MI>(See Fig.
This spiral process once initiated may become infinite due to vegetative
(somatic) multiplication known also as cloning. Here one spiral
the process whereas a number of subsequent spirals arise by simple *
division or fragmentation, a natural event or an artifact produced *
by other agents like human beings while gardening or cultivation through
generations, rose cuttings, sugar cane, tapioca, potatoes, yams,
grass etc., are good examples of this phenomenon.
Once in a while, the onset of sexual reproduction may enhance the *
quality of the product, as in the case of plants, capable of seed *
setting and vegetative multiplication.
Perennial organisms set seeds repeatedly without maintaining the
of patterns within specific range so that biodiversity is expressed *
in amplitude. A mango tree is an excellent example of this phenomenon *
wherein several thousands of genetic combinations occur each season *
to produce fruits comparable in certain qualities but each one with *
different forms, size or shape, smell, taste etc.
Not only internal factors alter the spirals but also external factors *
cause substantial changes in its expression. Mainly the symmetry or *
the spiral gets affected by these factors.
A process, apparently cyclic, occurring repeatedly and continuously *
through space and time, should be considered as spiral or helical, *
due to the dynamic nature of the phenomenon, more so in a living
@BODY1.PKB = 10 – 1
@BODYDA.PKB = 9 <|>x <|>1 = 9
@BODYD.PKB = 9<|> x 2 = 18
@BODYDB.PKB = 9<|> x 3 = 27
@BODYD.PKB = 9<|> x 4 = 36
@BODYDA.PKB = 9<|> x 5 = 45
@BODYDA.PKB = 9<|> x 6 = 54
@BODYD.PKB = 9<|> x 7 = 63
@BODYDB.PKB = 9<|> x 8 = 72
@BODYD.PKB = 9<|> x 9 = 81
@BODYDA.PKB = 9 x 10 = 90
@SIDEHED.PKB = Spiral Pattern
Events flow every moment all over. When one observes these events *
in one particular direction at specific intervals, it appears to be *
a linear phenomenon. But in every direction such lines flow and it *
is beyond the scope and capacity of any human being to follow the *
sequential flow. The observer may look at several identical events *
one after the other and concludes that it is a cyclic phenomenon.
Depending on the observer’s position, formation and capacity, events *
may go unnoticed or be recorded. Microscopic details or telescopic *
events may never be noticed at all. This limits the observation.
A pattern unique in the known universe at macro as well as micro levels,
is undoubtedly the spiral one. The Spiral pattern is observable whether
it is a phenomenon, a process, an event, an entity, an organism or *
Pebbles dropped in a pool of water produce concentric waves. These *
concentric waves are nothing but a spiral pressed in one plane owing *
to expansion. <F14MI>(See Figure)<F255D>
Applied to living organism or non living material, the spiral pattern *
may be considered as a basic unit. In living organisms this spiral *
process is dynamic. The gametic fusion produces a zygote, starting *
point for every living organism. By growth it functions as an
and finally degenerates to death. All successive events from birth *
to death are sequential processes with internal and external influences,
noticeable or not. This is the dynamic spiral process.
Even when organisms appear in regular sequence one after another
no two individuals are alike in all aspects. That is the specificity *
in each case. The cyclic nature, in fact, represents a spiral at short *
intervals. The so-called life cycles are nothing but a fragment of *
a spiral. Biosphere is full of such organisms and therefore spiral *
In nature, the spiral arrangement is quite common, right from a
sperm to a galaxy.
@BODYA.PKB = Examples:
@BODYF.PKB = Snails and conches with spiral shells.
@BODYE.PKB = Leaf arrangement in plants.
@BODYE.PKB = Deposition of wall material on cell walls.
@BODYE.PKB = Fingerprints.
@BODYE.PKB = Child birth among mammals.
@BODYE.PKB = Air entering and leaving the nostrils.
@BODYE.PKB = Climbers and twines.
@BODYE.PKB = Tendrils.
@BODYE.PKB = Flower parts.
@BODYE.PKB = Energy flow in the living organism.
@BODYE.PKB = Planetary and celestial bodies with spiral or helical *
@BODYE.PKB = Hurricanes and tornadoes.
@BODYE.PKB = Flowing water, rivers, oceans, currents etc.
There are cycles wherein the duration is so long that it is humanly *
impossible to measure or follow the process. For example, the Pole *
star is said to be at a distance of 200 light years. Light traveling *
at a speed of 300.000 Km. per second, if it takes 200 years to reach *
our planet, this distance can be mathematically calculated, but no *
human being could verify this.
Even sunlight that takes 8 minutes and 20 seconds to reach us, maintains
the distance which cannot be verified otherwise. Speculation again *
estimates the sun’s orbit at 25.000 years for one turn. Fractions *
of this duration may be compared to the lifetime of one individual. *
Even then a day may decide many processes significantly. This is
the value added to the spiral process; since the benefit is
to the accumulated virtues. Vicious circles lead one from one process *
to another process and once again to the initial one, repeatedly. *
When we are conscious of the added value, every virtue can be counted *
to turn vices into virtues. When such process expands in space and *
time, a virtuous spiral is the result. Recognizing the positive aspects
of each one (or still better, not recognizing the negative aspects of *
every one) this spiral will constitute a formidable milestone in the *
progress of humanity. Discipline, both personal and collective, common *
sense and freedom, should lead to efficiency and creativity. This *
spiral growth should have been the indicator for development or
Instead of discipline, when dictatorship steps in, inefficiency is *
the result. So also instead of freedom for abuse creativity is lost *
with the prevailing imitation. This vicious circle is difficult to *
overcome unless, individually, efforts are made to improve on virtues.
With this reflection, each reader is invited to evolve such spiral *
virtues. This is the hope for humanity.
Simple lifestyle, purity at heart, a calm and quiet mind, are some *
of the basic virtues of a scientist, an artist, or a humanitarian.
These qualities are possible through sustained discipline at personal *
level with sufficient freedom to think, work and express. When human *
well being is maintained as a single goal, two basic principles are *
the means to attain such objective:
@BODY.PKB = 1) First of all,. do no harm.
@BODY.PKB = 2) Human values above other values.
@CENT1.HKB = THE RESCUE OF TRADITIONAL WISDOM ON HEALTH :<R>*
A MATTER OF SURVIVAL
As we approach the end of the millennium within this decade, modern *
civilization has been describing an ever increasing number of disease *
as well as causative factors of these in either genes, viruses,
fungi or other exogenous organisms beyond the individual. But in spite *
of all the resources and energy spent, results have not been
Pharmaceuticals have not been able to cure diseases; in fact, so far *
they have failed miserably to achieve their goal at the same time *
opening opportunities to Nutraceuticals and phytoceutricals.
On the other hand present day living and eating habits with frequent *
toxic residues have caused damage to the human genetic material itself.
The damage is too heavy. If left to continue as such within about *
two generations (say, about 50 years ahead), about 98% of humanity *
should collapse permitting hardly 2% of the world population to survive,
probably most of this being in the tropics.
In view of this deterioration of the state of health, questions have *
been raised repeatedly about the need to change the basic concepts *
of health care and search for alternative systems.
Considering the fact that the tropical region houses about 80% of *
all natural resources, 80% of the present day world population and *
100% of traditional knowledge about the use of these resources, a *
change in basic concepts should help us avail ourselves of such a *
favourable setting to enhance human well-being in the planet.
Preventive health education should receive priority and this should, *
as a matter of urgency, include clear cut guidelines regarding food *
and nutrition, drinking water, air to breathe along with flora and *
fauna available for proper use. In so doing, many people may have *
to change their way of thinking, food and living habits to prevent *
illness and pursue well-being and integral health.
There is a wealth of traditional know-how regarding the effective *
employment of natural resources for proper nutrition, effective cure *
or other similar purposes. In order to benefit from this knowledge *
all that is required is to abandon modern concepts – normally developed
in non-tropical latitudes.
Concepts which have done enormous damage to the wealth of traditional *
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 1.
@BSPL5.PKB = Fragmenting of human body and applying terms such as *
systems, organs, tissues and cells.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 2.
@BSPL5.PKB = Learning from dead bodies some static facts and extending *
the same to living dynamic processes, the organism.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 3.
@BSPL5.PKB = Insisting on “discovering” genes, viruses, microbes and *
other pathogens as causative agents of diseases.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 4.
@BSPL5.PKB = Treating diseases and symptoms using aggressive methods *
and poisonous chemicals.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 5.
@BSPL5.PKB = Isolating “active principles” from natural resources, *
disregarding basic information from traditional knowledge.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 6.
@BSPL5.PKB = Prescribing such principles in crystalline form or
artificial chemical substances in laboratories, generally combining *
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 7.
@BSPL5.PKB = Disregarding the “side effects” produced by this kind *
Instead of the former, new concepts should be established in tune *
with the traditional usage such as:
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 1.
@BSPL5.PKB = Full vitality is the expression of health and only by *
preserving and maintaining that vitality we are able to prevent diseases
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 2.
@BSPL5.PKB = Treat the human being as a whole – body, mind and soul *
together as a spirally extended dynamic biological process.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 3.
@BSPL5.PKB = Treat the person and the cause, and symptoms will
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 4.
@BSPL5.PKB = Responsibility to take care of and to maintain good health
or negligence leading to sickness is an individual affair, others *
can do nothing about it.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 5.
@BSPL5.PKB = When necessary, for medicinal purposes, use natural
in full (forget about the “active principle” stuff), as recommended *
by traditional wisdom.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 6.
@BSPL5.PKB = Use natural resources in the combinations and the manner *
indicated by traditional methods including infusions, baths, extracts, *
ashes, inhalations, applications, etc.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 7.
@BSPL5.PKB = Traditional recommendations regarding the time of
of natural resources, mode of preparation, treatments should be
with external factors like lunar phases, seasonal exigencies, “Sunday *
@BODYSIDE.PKB = 8.
@BSPL5.PKB = Food and living habits should be observed as per
to maintain harmony with traditional wisdom or, at least, when remedies
are being taken.
@BODY1.PKB = In the traditional systems treatments are individually *
designed in a way that patient is active participant in getting cured *
so that illness does not recur nor leave side effects of any kind.
Prayers, “placing of hands”, healing rituals, etc., are resorted to *
in various traditions. Just because we do not understand them or are *
unable to explain them in our jargon or value system, we should not *
belittle such traditional wisdom. The capacity of folk wisdom should *
never be underestimated either for diagnosis or treatment. Diverse *
traditional healers have their own particular methods, often beyond *
our mental framework or formative limitations. Such methods normally *
recommend specific diet restrictions. In almost all traditional systems
diet is one of the most important aspects.
Logic and common sense should be applied to decide the most adequate *
food habits. The anatomical and physiological limitations of human *
body structurally and functionally permit a capacity to ingest, digest,
utilize and eliminate the toxic residue produced using plant resources *
alone. Of course, as a child one is to be fed with breast milk during *
the first two years, and possibly for a few more years; one may opt *
for any other mammalian milk in that situation such as that of cow, *
The exuberance and abundance of plant resources in the tropics should *
be taken into account to assure sufficient raw material to meet the *
needs of every body around the world, whether it is for food, shelter, *
clothing, medicine or recreation.
On the other hand, when there are known toxic substances in such plant *
products, one should avoid by all means these resources for internal *
consumption. This is the case with products like soy beans, tomatoes, *
avocados, cocoa, coffee, tea, guarana, mate, chilies, tobacco and *
all known drugs and alcohol. Traditional wisdom again must be considered
in every case.
@BODY1A.PKB = Soy bean: The traditional sparing use of this legume *
is limited to prolonged fermentation products, such as miso in the *
Far East. Now in the modern market there are about 6,400 soy bean *
products promoted through vigorous propaganda techniques around the *
world. Even if it is food on many accounts, just because of the presence
of high concentrations of the “Trypsin inhibitory factor” (TIF for *
short), resistant to high temperatures, soy bean and its derivatives *
become dangerous health hazards. TIF inhibits pancreatic activity; *
thereby proteins carbohydrates, lipids, etc., are not digested properly
in the digestive tract. Again the insulin when its production quantity *
or quality get effected may lead to alterations in blood sugar levels. *
Babies fed with soy milk formulae are unable to assimilate micro
indispensable for the development of the normal endocrine system. *
A retarded endocrine system may lead to anemia and sterility, which *
may be both permanent and incurable.
@BODY1A.PKB = Tomato: Tomatoes were introduced to Europe from Mexico *
by mistaken identity. In Mexico the fruits of one species of
is consumed even today under the common name “tomatl” in the fields *
of corn or along with tomatl another plant grew as a weed with smaller *
fruits known as “miltomate” assigned to a species of
also pertaining to the same family Solanaceae as the former one. The *
seeds of both are very much similar. Those who carried the seeds mistook
one for the other and the confusion resulted in introducing tomatoes *
to Europe, especially to Italy and France where the original name *
“pom de mor” (meaning the apple of the Moor), became “pom de amor” *
(meaning love’s apple!), attributing aphrodisiac properties to the *
fruit in order to popularize its use among the high society. This *
confusion led to the introduction of tomatoes and later on its easy *
cultivation made it an “ideal laboratory plant” for studies. Many *
improvements were made to obtain larger fruits of better size and *
shape. In nature no bird is known to eat tomato fruits. During
transportation, marketing etc., toxic agrochemicals are required *
and industrially used. Even organically grown tomato fruits contain *
considerable amount of lead, oxalic acid and uric acid in the cytoplasm.
Consequently, consumption of these fruits in any form may cause lead *
poisoning (“saturnism” or heavy metal poisoning), anemia, vesicular *
or kidney stones and uric acid crystal deposits at various parts of *
the body causing piercing pains known as arthritis or rheumatism, *
and so on.
Avocados are not eaten by birds in Nature. Fruits do not ripen in *
the tree. A few days after the harvest, when kept covered with straw *
or paper, the fruits start ripening but their cell division continues *
until one consumes the pulp. Unlike other fruits, avocados contain *
several unsaturated fatty acids (so far about 34 are known). These *
substances mix liberally with the consumed food to form an emulsion *
right at the stomach. When this emulsion passes through duodenum food *
fibre is not capable of performing its normal function of absorbing *
body cholesterol from the liver secreted through bile since it is *
already emulsified. This phenomenon leads to retention of body
in the vesicle or even regression to the blood stream. The toxic
along with other saturated fatty acids is known to cause atheroma *
leading to several cardiovascular diseases. The liver cells get
to cause cirrhosis.
Caffeine is as toxic as any other alkaloid. Several plant products *
contain caffeine in significant quantities. Coffee, tea, cocoa
guarana, mate, etc., all contain caffeine. Caffeine is added to several
carbonated drinks too. Chlorogenic acid present in coffee is a stomach *
irritant and may cause damage to the mucous membrane. Caffeine is *
a powerful vasoconstrictor. As such all the blood vessels get affected *
by reduction of their lumen, thus increasing arterial blood pressure. *
This process may damage liver, heart, brain, kidneys, pancreas and *
gonads as well. The reduction of blood flow to the brain may cause *
initial hallucination, restlessness and loss of hunger. This effect
of caffeine has made it popular around the world and the commercial *
exploitation of this situation is understandable. The adverse effect *
on the health of the consumer is not taken into account. Caffeine *
residues may cause mutations at the chromosomal level.
Other alkaloids like theine or theobromine present in tea or cocoa *
are known to cause damage at several levels. For example, theobromine *
is known to neutralize serotonine, the known precursor of endorphines, *
which are in turn indispensable for stress relief and calmness. Nickel *
absorbed from the soil is deposited in cocoa bean and this metal on *
deposition in the fatty layers of the brain may cause memory loss *
leading to “Alzheimer’s” disease.
Traditionally the indigenous people chew the pulp of the cocoa fruit *
but discard the seeds. On ceremonial occasions alone such drinks as *
chocolate were consumed in a limited quantity, especially by the *
shaman or medicine man. Modern civilization has abused cocoa
Once again, commercial interest prevailed upon health care interest.
Commercial tea preparations contain significant amount (about 10 ppm) *
of lead. When consumed may cause saturnism.
Chilies or cayenne pepper is hot and pungent to taste due to the
of several caustic substances. When consumed they irritate the mucous *
membrane and may cause ulcers along the digestive tract.
Tobacco’s fatal effects on health are already too well known. The *
smoke is found to consist of more than 4,000 chemically identifiable *
substances of which about 50 have outright cancerigen properties. *
Before its mercantilization for wide social use, tobacco leaves were *
confined to be consumed by shamans only during ceremonial rituals. *
Generalized smoking is a modern habit, especially in the so-called *
developing countries; that too taking into account only economic gains,
disregarding health hazards. The genetic damage to the unborn babies *
may never be rectified with all the money in the world.
Carbohydrates are plant products, be the sources roots, shoots, leaves,
flowers, fruits, juices or other derivatives, when they undergo
and subsequent distillation alcohol is obtained industrially. Alcohol *
is not a food item, not a medicine. Alcohol will never quench thirst *
either. Alcohol consumption is widespread among rich and poor. Alcohol *
is a vasodilator. The peripheral blood vessels increase in volume *
retaining large quantities of blood so that blood flow to the brain *
gets reduced causing hallucination and loss of memory. Alcohols destroy
everything. Living cells die, liver cells harden, walls of blood vessels
lose elasticity and harden damaging even the heart muscles. All the *
organs of the body get affected proportionately but the damage caused *
to the gonads reflect in the offspring. Children born of alcoholic *
parents present mental retardation, about 20% in the first generation. *
This may reach 100% in just four or more generations even when nobody *
ever consumes a single drop of alcohol again!
Drugs of diverse kinds harm humanity directly or indirectly damaging *
even the offspring through altered genetic materials inherited from *
birth with consequences impossible to cure. Artificial colours and *
flavours are likewise harmful to human health. Many are known to cause *
damage at cell or tissue levels. The action, reaction, interaction *
and final effects of all these products are not fully understood. *
The reaction to all types of vaccines and the residual long range *
consequences from them are also yet to be fully realized. When human *
kind finally comes to realize the effects of all these toxic substances
will feel sorry for what has been done, but then it may be too late.
Vegetable oils used for deep frying is yet another dangerous item *
in the diet of millions around the world everyday. These oils, when *
heated to boiling point, get chemically altered becoming extremely *
poisonous and unfit for human consumption. Margarine is the worst *
substance ever invented, item used in food. Chemically it is plastic *
and hence it will never disintegrate in Nature; it contains chemicals *
which are hard to digest. It leaves residues in the cardiovascular *
system blocking the lumen and hard to eliminate.
Naturally occurring plant products contain many nutrients. Sugar cane *
is a tropical crop with many nutrients. The concentrated juice attracts
insects and microbes precisely for this reason. In order to maintain *
the commercial product in storage for long periods “refining” is
to by adding more toxic substances for bleaching rendering the product *
unfit even for insects and microbes! When consumed by human beings *
the refined sugar causes damage to the mucous membrane and acidifies *
the blood. The acidified blood removes calcium deposits from the bones *
and teeth and may end up with osteoporosis. Sugar consumption thus *
damages several body functions and hence is dangerous.
Whole cereals are rich in nutrients. Again for commercial purposes, *
it is refined to avoid deterioration in the store and enhance financial
benefits. But refined flour or its derivatives, such as pastas, biscuits
or crackers are, just like sugar, pure carbohydrates and unsafe for *
Canning or packaging industry came to exist in regions where the
of vegetables and fruits was scarce around the year due to adverse *
weather conditions. While doing so vegetables and some fruits are *
cooked and drained, artificial colours, flavours or other chemicals *
added to preserve. In this process the water soluble vitamins – Vit. *
B and C get dissolved in the water used for cooking and while draining *
get discarded. In the tropics, however, where vegetables and fruits *
are available fresh all round the year, there is no need to preserve *
in can or tin. The modern transportation and communication facilities *
distribute these vegetable products from the tropics to the rest of *
the world on daily basis and hence nowadays there is no need for such *
industry anywhere in the world.
In any health care system, the sick should get proper attention
regarding their food habits, hygiene and rest. All attempts should *
be made to provide them with the basic requirements, health programmes
should change their conceptual approach whenever necessary to understand
and to reincorporate traditional systems in to modern life style. *
While doing so we should be prepared to discard useless or incoherent *
concepts prevalent in the modern society. Such measure may be vital *
to ensure the very survival of human civilization.
Animal products such as eggs, cheese, fish, poultry and meat of any *
kind all are dangerous and harmful for human consumption. Any animal *
protein is unfit a food. Neither the anatomical structure nor the *
physiological function of the human body is apt for use of these
as food. There is not a single mechanism to ingest, digest, utilize *
or eliminate the toxic residues produced during the process.
Animal proteins suffer putrefaction in the human digestive system, *
with prolonged retention within replace the normal intestinal flora *
from the ascending colon. This in turn may cause immune deficiency *
and lower vitamin input from the intestinal flora. Blood gets acidified
leading to the depletion of minerals, especially calcium from the *
bones to compensate the higher levels of acid so that delicate organs *
like the brain and heart do not suffer. This extraction of calcium *
when continues for long will lead to osteoporosis.
Human body has no mechanism to store excess of animal protein but *
should be eliminated through the kidneys on a daily basis causing *
overwork for these organs. The immune system reacts sharply against *
any foreign protein, especially animal protein, known as tissue
common in organ transplants. Saturated fat associated with the animal *
protein gets deposited in the human body below the skin or along the *
inner walls of the blood vessels blocking the same in the long run. *
Hormones, antibiotics, residues of vaccines, etc., present in the *
animal protein play havoc with the human body proportionately.
The demographic explosion, about which so much has been said, is a *
myth. The commercial lobby has raised this myth and has managed to *
maintain the same through decades. What has happened is an increase *
in the consumer population and a decrease in the availability of basic *
products, whole and healthy and able producers conscious about the *
same. If only we would all turn into producers as much as possible *
for our own consumption, the problem should be solved. The world can *
withstand much more healthy population if all the inhabitants become *
<MI>`prosumers'<D> – producers and consumers at the same time.
@SIDEHED.PKB = 1. Some Key Considerations Concerning Medicinal Plants.
Plant identification for purposes of food and medicine should depend *
more on local practice than on universally-standardized “scientific *
means”. The confusion, even among specialists, regarding the correct *
application of International Codes of Botanical Nomenclature, with *
retroactiveness, should be avoided at all times for database collection
and effective communication. The common names used in one context *
may denote different plant materials or several names for one and *
the same plant. Thus, local databases should be given more importance.
So far not a single product in its totality has been chemically
and that is impossible to accomplish, even with all the available *
technology. Harping on active principle and specific pharmaceutical *
or nutritional targets remain as reductionist concepts whether in *
food or medicine. Use of integral plant product should be encouraged *
as laid down in authentic tradition-al systems.
Every living organism will have to be considered as a spiral,
dynamic process, limited in time and space and for all practical
should be treated as a whole without being fragmented into systems, *
organs, tissues and cells.
Pathogenesis of organisms should be considered as an expression of *
lowering vitality permitting proliferation of cytoplasmic bacteria. *
The latter, under normal alkaline conditions, remain latent, but become
virulent when their media turns acidic. Upon the consumption of cell *
reserves, the hosted bacteria invade the entire cytoplasm. This is *
known as “infection”, and when no nutrients are available bacteria *
in turn lose their vitality. At this moment bacteriophages-viral
which in turn so far have remained latent within each bacterial cell, *
become active. Once bacterial destruction takes place, viral particles *
also succumb and the substrate becomes acidic, in a reaction suitable *
for fungal growth. Other endo or ectoparasites may get incorporated. *
This process clearly indicates that pathogenesis in living organisms *
becomes coherently and easily understood. This knowledge permits to *
explain why antibiotics are becoming less and less effective, while *
target organisms are becoming more and more resistant. Once the vitality
of any organism is increased, all the pathogens get under control. *
The purpose of health seekers should be directed towards this aim. *
By consuming natural products vitality may be recovered in due course, *
helped by Mother Nature.
<F14P11MI>In situ <F255P255D>conservation of plants has several
since locally available information in association with the wild
of the specific plant resource may be conserved as a type specimen. *
However, for large scale exploitation <F14P11MI>ex situ<F255P255D>,
may be developed to preserve the specific type specimen. Perhaps the *
local population may be alerted as to the importance of such specimen *
so that they maintain the safety of this resource, thus protecting *
the gene pool and conservation of endangered specifies.
Both, contents and properties of plant products, vary depending on *
several factors like: time of collection, substrate where it grows, *
climatic conditions, manner in which the sample is collected and *
processed, plant associations and communities, etc. As said earlier, *
it is significant to note that there doesn’t exist the capability *
to analyze chemically not a single plant.
Modern therapeutic systems have focused in reductionist techniques *
even for handling of patients. Unfortunately, today even the common *
man in modern days has learnt to fraction the process into minute *
static units based on symptoms. The specialists also refer to fragmented
cells or tissues, and treatment is based on pharmaceutical products *
in turn using active principles with specific targets. Inherently *
dynamic organisms and natural pro-ducts both get reduced to
static objects. The side effects produced by the active principle *
or excipient used with it, or the action, reaction and interaction *
in the whole organism are not considered or, when considered, overlooked
as it belongs to someone else’s specialty. The patient is the one *
who suffers and bears the consequences of this short-sighted and
approach. Contradictory paradigms or confusing concepts should be *
abandoned or modified in favour of inherently holistic dynamic natural *
process. This model is presented for discussion. If accepted, it may *
serve for the next century.
@SIDEHED.PKB = 2. Present Day Crisis
A highly significant trend has been a blind imitation of life style, *
food and living habits of the people from non-tropical regions in the *
tropical areas disregarding the climatic, edaphic and biotic factors *
of these latitudes. Consequently, the disharmony and incongruence *
in many customs and habits among the modern tropical populations become
evident. On the other hand, the traditional wisdom compatible with *
the environment through ages, has been relegated to the last column, *
or all together forgotten, favoring the “modern” trend, generally *
imported and implanted.
@BODY.PKB = For example:
@BODYSIDE.PKB = a)
@BSPL5.PKB = Food habits and food technology.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = b)
@BSPL5.PKB = Life style in accordance with the four seasons (generally *
not seen in the tropics).
@BODYSIDE.PKB = c)
@BSPL5.PKB = Dressing habits.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = d)
@BSPL5.PKB = Obsolete and ambiguous concepts and methodology in
science and technology, transport and communication, administration, *
legal systems, etc.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = e)
@BSPL5.PKB = Use and abuse of energy.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = f)
@BSPL5.PKB = Energy consuming, contaminating, industrial development.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = g)
@BSPL5.PKB = Economic, social, political and other systems.
@BODY1.PKB = This chaos has been responsible for the present day crisis
in every sector.
Along with the crisis, the genetic degeneration due to harmful
in use during the last 75 years, is leading to the extinction of human *
race from the planet. The “empty cradle” syndrome in many European *
countries should be an eye opener for the rest of the world not to *
imitate this system any more.
But the damages already implanted in the world should be redeemed. *
How? Why? When? By whom? Are questions to be answered.
An estimated 67% of the world population has been genetically damaged *
so far. Of the rest, 31% which is partially affected may be recovered *
through one more generation if only careful measures are taken
As it is, only 2% of the remaining population is apparently undamaged, *
most of this small fraction distributed widely in the tropics around *
the world. Even this fraction is threatened by the industrial pollution,
but perhaps may get through the tough situation once the whole system *
The intelligence around the world should think, discuss among themselves
and work silently to the extent possible to save the human race from *
total extinction in such a short time.
@SIDEHED.PKB = 3. The need of Effective and Efficient Systems
In any nation, the government is the highest authority to protect *
the interest of the citizens. The sovereign obligation requires
and practice of effective and efficient systems in all aspects,
food, health and education.
Considering the ever increasing health problems of peoples, day by *
day, in spite of constant addition of hundreds and thousands of doctors,
clinics, hospitals, clinical laboratories, pharmacies, pharmaceutical *
products, health care systems, social security and insurance companies *
Considering the difficulty of people to pay the high cost of modern *
medicine and the poor attention they get, in addition to untold
the existing official systems should be declared
and inefficient, especially in the following aspects:
@BODYSIDE.PKB = a)
@BSPL5.PKB = Ignorance of causes for many symptoms commonly designated *
as “idiopathic” or “cryptogenic” diseases.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = b)
@BSPL5.PKB = Focusing on symptoms and description of pathology without *
proper preventive systems of orientation.
@BODYSIDE.PKB = c)
@BSPL5.PKB = Chemical resources with side effects are the bases for *
@BODYSIDE.PKB = d)
@BSPL5.PKB = With no option for other methods of treatment or
@BODYSIDE.PKB = e)
@BSPL5.PKB = Higher onset of degenerative diseases in “advanced”
where modern lifestyle is widely disseminated.
@BODY1.PKB = The existing predominant official paradigm has no means *
to under-stand fully the values of natural systems in other paradigms. *
Thus, for example, the dynamic components of natural products cannot *
be analyzed with static scientific methods, the totality of the process
can never be understood by fragmenting the components. The official *
scientific method (Cartesian) propagated blindly all over the world, *
has failed to conduct comparative experiments due to the absence of *
two totally comparable individuals (one meant for “control” and the *
other for “experimentation”) or not even two comparable moments in *
space time units with reference to one dynamic living process, an *
The pharmaceutical sciences are yet to synthesize any natural unit.
The wide range of structural and functional variability of living *
organisms should be interpreted as a dynamic universe with a
full of dynamic, asymmetric, spiral, limited processes.
The abundance of natural resources along with traditional systems *
managed by the native population forever to meet their requirements, *
naturally contrasts well with all the limitations of a foreign
means imitated blindly or imposed officially.
Liberty and freedom of each citizen, enshrined in official
to select and pursue any specific system or paradigm for food,
therapy, faith, belief or thought, should be respected and safeguard *
at all costs.
Proof is available of persons who suffered degenerative diseases at *
the hands of conventional medical system once declared incurable, *
and got completely cured with proper orientations and treatments in *
a more natural way, at a relatively low cost, least sufferings and *
no side effects.
The government should discuss and stimulate the conservation, promotion,
practice and extension of traditional natural systems.
@RIGHT = <P11B>Dr. Pallathadka Keshava Bhat<P255D>
@SIDEHED.PKB = <MI>February, 1998<D>
@END1.PKB = Presented at : “The Maloca Process” International Conference
on Medicinal Plants. 16-19 February 1998, Bangalore, INDIA.
@CENT1.HKB = POINTS TO PONDER
@BIBNME.PKB = Love:
@BODYUP.PKB = Finest sentiment felt by any living organism touching *
the subtler parts of the being. The expression is visible between *
two: mother – child, lover – loved, teacher – taught, limitless – limited *
Each human being, at sometime or another, passes through this experience
that cannot be described by words; no object can represent this feeling.
Therefore it is abstract beyond any “proof” thereof, but heart-felt *
@BIBNME.PKB = Pure:
@BODYUP.PKB = That which is not contaminated, contaminable. That which *
is immense does not get contaminated since no contamination is possible
with limitlessness. The unlimited maintains purity by itself. Hence, *
it is known as omnipresent.
@BIBNME.PKB = Peace:
@BODYUP.PKB = To wage war there should be opposition. When there is *
only one all pervading, there is no need for war. There is peace. *
Peace represents tranquillity. No motion at all. This motionless
is the monument of peace. No duality.
@BIBNME.PKB = Bliss:
@BODYUP.PKB = Unbound happiness that is eternal. Completely content *
and satisfied beyond any doubt. Every particle is saturated with *
happiness because that itself is delight. Every living being at sometime
or another, in some place or another, has experienced this bliss. *
Therefore, everyone is a particle of the whole. Or it may be said *
that a particle of bliss is in everybody, just like a tiny particle *
of a magnet that attracts.
@BIBNME.PKB = Kind:
@BODYUP.PKB = Compassion is the tender sentiment one expresses to *
another living creature recognizing its finer vibrations. The expression
gains ground when a powerful one shows kindness to one without, or *
with minimum or lesser power. Then the expression of every kind of *
organism on this biosphere-biodiversity.
@BIBNME.PKB = Beauty:
@BODYUP.PKB = When a blossom blooms, a teenager giggles, a heart beats *
the finest tunes, the morning breeze, warm feelings, and many such *
moments and phenomena have no translation in any language. It has *
to be enjoyed. In order to enjoy such beauty, one should have finer *
disposition. For someone with prejudice or preconceived notions or *
influence from other quarters, beauty becomes a bur-den. Sometimes, *
physical beauty may become a real burden when other interests
A beauty that lasts forever, that shines eternally that has no starting
point and no known end point, that is beauty personified.
@BIBNME.PKB = Harmony:
@BODYUP.PKB = Equilibrium between any duality. This requires perfect *
efficiency and the highest creativity. Efficiency is the expression *
proportionate to the discipline, whereas creativity is the expression *
of liberty. Harmony is also mere expression of single pole or absence *
of polarity. When the attention is not diverted but centered at one *
and only pole then the maximum power is expression and hence omnipotent.
@BIBNME.PKB = Knowledge:
@BODYUP.PKB = Personified knowledge is omniscient, the one who is *
no student at all but always a master. This one contrasts with the *
human being, who is always a student, every instant discovering
new about which he was ignorant until then.
@BODY1.PKB = The conscience knows, feels, acts, perpetuates by
the separate identity.
That energy which has no attributes, not even a name, but is part *
of each organism, the vitality itself, minute and all pervading, *
but is a permanent witness of every conscious action, an absolute *
These are some descriptions of that which pervades all attributes- *
Recent born infants are known for their innocence and purity and this *
is referred to as “divine”.
Every individual has his or her own version of realization of the *
truth, the absolute. This search has led to identity diverse gods *
of all kinds.
@BODYG.PKB = When one sheds the limits, the immensity is attained *
with ease. The same process is favorable to dissolve the terrible, *
obscure ego that maintains the ignorance. That is the real
referred to in texts.
Matter-force, mass-energy, are dualities commonly referred to by the *
modern science. If not another state is present, manifests not. The *
matter or mass may be mentioned as the nature, which is the dynamic *
natural resources, changing every instant. Of course, constant change *
is divine -never repeats the same. Energy, on the one hand, or mass, *
on the other extreme, are two points, whereas when the interchangeable *
mid portion is reached, only gradation from one to the other is
By close observation of this process and understanding its dynamic *
nature, one can understand the basic concept of anything. That is *
It is futile to interpret the process other than understanding it. *
No need to repeat the same, not even for studies.
Enjoy studying science, knowing the truth, learning the process, but *
bear in mind that at no time, at no place, the experiences repeat *
@BODYB.PKB = To know the process is not sufficient.
@BODYB.PKB = To have faith is not a crime.
@BODYB.PKB = To feel the warmth is no weakness.
@BODYB.PKB = To live in tune with Nature and natural things and a *
mystic or spiritual life, is something one can choose and pursue with *
ease. It is not beyond easy access.
@BODYB.PKB = Dynamic Science merges with static-eternity.
@BODYB.PKB = Vitality is the expression of this subtlety.
@BODY1.PKB = According to the modern view, science satisfies the
(needs) and religion satisfies the internal (needs). Therefore, science
and religion together should satisfy all the needs of the human being *
full of hopes for a bright and prosperous future for the entire race. *
But even more ideally, they should not have been separated in the *
first place, because as ancient wisdom holds, they have always been *
part of the same whole.
@BODYG.PKB = Religion -to reunite- is a means to get all the humanity *
together, holding high the human values, irrespective of other values.
Positive human virtues are: purity, love, harmony, efficiency etc.
@BODYG.PKB = Any action in these lines is science, art and religion. *
THE MYTH OF BLOOD CIRCULATION
Conduction or transportation is a special process in every living being. The process differs in vegetables and in animals. A single protoplasm with partial partition through cell walls facilitates
conduction in plants. At the same time increase in the volume of protoplasm is possible due to meristematic activity all over the plant body. Only on special occasions complete cell walls are laid down to separate protoplasm.
The plant protoplasm has the capacity to incorporate water from the surroundings, whether in the form of aqueous solution or water vapour, in order to make available the same anywhere in the plant body. There is no need for conduction or transportation through special channels. The organic discontinuity of the so called conducting tissue does not permit an effective flow of liquids (See Chapter V for further discussion).
In the case of animals, with division of labour each cell is
structurally independent and therefore, requires special mechanisms to transport energy, gases, liquids and solids from one cell to another. This
systematic flow of diverse components from place to place requires adequate
patterns of transportation in every case. In the human body there are at least seven patterns in the conduction of blood. Conventional concepts and information on this subject are not correct, not even for the
differentiation process of blood vessels. It is also wrong to say that arteries carry pure blood and that venous blood is impure.
Each living cell is bathed in lymph which serves as a liquid filter for all substances which enter or come out of the protoplasm. The arterial capillaries pour in the contents into the lymph. After
filtering, only the nutrients are allowed to enter the protoplasm and the metabolic
wastes or products are received in the lymph. From here the blood or useful products pass on to the venous capillaries whereas the toxic substances and the unused nutrients are carried back into the arterial capillaries. The lymphocytes attack the microbes or isolated cells and clean the system.
Blood does not circulate but gets transported. Blood samples from two places of the same organism are likely to be different in their composition. Blood is complex due to the ingredients present in it. The nutrients from the digestive tract enter the mucous membrane and then into the lymph from where they get into the venous blood. Then the bloodstream carries the nutrients to each and very cell of the organism for liberation of metabolic energy through phosphorylation. During this process waste products are released which naturally get incorporated into blood surrounding the cell.
The adipose cells which serve for accumulation of fat, receive these residues from the blood stream. The heavy metal residues also get deposited in this site, out of the bloodstream in order to get rid of this “impurity”. The steroids and other such toxic wastes accumulated
in cytoplasm attract liquid in an attempt to dilute these toxic wastes,
so that the damage may be reduced. This process leads to an accumulation
of body liquids combined with the waste material in each cell, thus increasing its size. When all the cells increase in volume, the organ or organism is voluminous. The meristematic cells receive nutrients and produce new cells in a continuous manner and the newly formed cells (red blood cells and platelets) from the bone marrow, get
incorporated into the blood-stream along with other metabolic wastes. The
meristematic cells of the gonads produce gametes for a limited duration in order to participate in the reproduction to maintain the process of the perpetuation of the species. The transportation mechanism of these cells differ in female and male organisms.
The ductless endocrine glands have different types of cells in each gland. Each living cell receives nutrients like any other cell and functions actively so that respective hormones are produced in addition
to metabolic wastes, all of which should enter the bloodstream through the lymphatic system.
The cells where toxic wastes are removed from the bloodstream- lungs, kidneys, liver and skin receive the arterial blood laden with toxic wastes of different kinds -gaseous, mineral or other metabolic products.
The venous blood from each of these organs returns devoid of these wastes. Toxic wastes removed from the bloodstream have special
mechanisms to be thrown out of the body in each case, either through the lungs (gaseous substances), kidneys (urine), liver (bile) or skin (sweat).
According to the available literature, only the oxygenation of the blood at the lungs is considered as purification of the same. When elimination of toxic wastes through other organs and tissues -skin, kidneys and liver, for example- is considered, there should be a
revision of this concept.
This process explains the total functioning of the human organism and the indispensable interrelationship among the components of the body but the modern science, with a tendency to super specialization has failed to understand.
Although human beings are considered to be rational ones, of late, even this capacity is apparently lost.
Breathing is a continuous rhythmic involuntary process of live
organisms. The vitality is expressed and enhanced by breathing. Although air is everywhere in our planet its rhythmic stimulation alone can influence
the vital movement. The inner linings of the nostrils provided with sensitive receptive surface get stimulated by the fresh air on its entry. The action, reaction, interaction with the living organism and finally the effect are all factors to be reckoned with. So also the warm air going out of the nostrils leaves behind some effect of its own.
The diaphragm movement is capable of increasing or reducing the thoracic
cavity in the regular fashion. For example when the diaphragm descends fresh air gushes into the lungs and when the diaphragm ascends the lungs get pushed in order to expel air from within. It is worth
mentioning that while diaphragm descends a vacuum is produced at the thoracic cavity thus air gets sucked in. So also blood flows into the heart on one side and the blood flows into the lungs. On the other hand, when diaphragm pushes up the thoracic cavity which is filled up with gases gushing the same out of the nostrils. At the same time blood also gets pumped into the aorta.
The energy contained in the air and the stimulus produced at the
nostrils known as the vital energy moves all over like a ripple on water. On completion of this wave all over the body a reverse movement occurs this time unless air is expelled through the nostrils and the diaphragm
ascends energy input gets reduced.
At all times only 10% blood capillaries remain at work although they have to follow a vital biorhythm. When more capillaries get open
stagnation of blood may occur somewhere in the body or the patient may enter into a coma due to peripheral blood accumulation reducing blood to the brain. This is what happens on persons with alcoholic drinks and therefore start talking incoherently.
MOTHERS’ WOMB : A PARADISE IN DISGUISE
Mother’s womb provides loving care to the developing child during ten months. The liquid protection-cum-nutrient solution is permanently in contact with the skin of the body. The constant incubation
temperature of 37 * is yet another comfort that has no comparison. The disposal of toxic wastes is easily attained through the umbilical chord.
But beware! This is also the place where destiny may be sealed forever!
The food and living habits of the mother much before the baby is
conceived, play an important role in her own health and that of the baby in
formation, and when the latter happens to be a baby girl, the destiny of the grandchildren is determined all at once! This is “the grandmother’s law”.
Since the reduction division takes place in the foetus in development at the locus corresponding to the future gonad of the organism, any mutagens available for the nuclei from the surrounding cytoplasm, may cause chromosomal alterations leading to proportionate anomalies in the haploid cells resulting out of this division. These cells are the precursors of ovules. Around the ovular mass, protective tissues get differentiated, thus constituting the ovaries. Associated with these organs, reproductive, as well as other type of organs, get
differentiated to establish a female embryo. When this baby becomes a girl, and later on, a woman, the ovules in her ovaries are those that had chromosomal alterations.
The sperms from a matching male may cause further damage which, in turn, are products of meiosis in the gonads of that person.
Metabolism is a live, dynamic energy releasing functional process in an organism. The nutrients get reduced to the smallest particles which are incorporated into a suitable conduction medium for an
effective transportation in order to reach the precise place of action in correct
quantity and quality and be one with the protoplasm releasing energy and/or matter as and when required, separate the waste products from the protoplasm to throw them out of that gamut, but if useful, utilize them elsewhere or, when found toxic, remove them from the body through adequate biological processes, at the first opportunity.
Any living cell/organism exhibits tez, digestive process, perception of stimuli, energy distribution/utilization and intelligence.
Cytoplasm is a live dynamic structural unit of an organism that has all the necessary organelles to receive the inputs, to process the incoming particles/stimulii, to incorporate it into the system, to maintain, to repair any wear and tear, to remove any toxic residues, to store up, if need be or get disintegrated.
Any live cytoplasm presents flexibility and agglutination, capacity for secretion of fluids, ingestion of fluids, transportation through fluid media, protective fluids.
The nucleus is a dynamic component that coordinates the vital movements
of the organism within a limited area under its control.
The nucleus gets divided into adequate units reducing the contents to their minimum expression potential so that when two complementary units come in contact with each other in space and time, a new
combination of nucleus is constituted which, when surrounded by other components expresses as a new organism for perpetuation of the race.
The vital movements coordinated by the nucleus include vibratory
movements, neurotransmission messages, transportation, elastic movements as well as peristaltic movements, in each cytoplasm/organism.
Metabolism, as a functional process; cytoplasm, as a structural unit; and nucleus, as a coordinatory center, combined in a harmonious manner,
in a limited space and time, with a specific mass, constitute an
organism. This organism has an initial birth and a final death. The interval between these two extremes is the existence.
Metabolic or cytoplasmic alterations may occur any time from the moment
the division takes place, until the instant the gametes come in contact
with one another for fertilization.
Nuclear alterations lead to the problems related to movements, such as: vibratory, neurotransmission, transportation, sensory perception such as vision, elasticity in the tissues, organs and systems, as well as peristaltic movements responsible for the elimination of toxic wastes.
Cytoplasmic alterations lead to problems related to the protective liquids, transportation liquids, digestive liquids, endocrine liquids and flexibility as well as agglutination in the dynamic organism.
Metabolic alterations lead to the problems associated with the
intellectual brilliance, the energy supply to each and every cell in the organism, the brightness of the vision, the digestive fluids as tez in the dynamic
Identical processes take place in both the gametes, either ovule or sperm. But when all the three factors are altered, the cell can not function any more and hence it dies or is beyond repair. This can happen when the cell is ready for fertilization or soon after
fertilization, when either gametes present partial but complementary defects.
There are seven possible combinations with reference to each cell due to three factors involved, the nucleus, cytoplasm and metabolism, either individually or in pairs. (See tables)
When the two components, ovule and sperm, come together and get
fertilized, forty nine combinations occur, of which twelve get aborted at once due to faults in all the three factors. Only one combination leads to a normal zygote. In the resulting zygote, twenty one combinations present some form of alteration at the level of the nucleus. Fifteen combinations present either metabolism or cytoplasm altered to some degree or other.
This process may be summarized in the adjoining table. The 98%
degradation of the human race is evident from the table, since only one out of forty nine is normal.
The genetic disintegration of the human race may reach this percentage in about two generations ahead. This may be estimated to occur in about fifty years or around that period.
The living and food habits of a modern consumer society, together with the contamination of the biosphere, may be considered as internal and external factors responsible for such destiny.
The human species is the endangered one in all fairness to the details.
However, if the present day humanity takes urgent measures to rectify the errors committed, it may be possible to rescue about 31% (fifteen out of forty nine combinations) otherwise destined to destruction. This is possible only through natural food and living habits, in harmony
with the dynamic nature we live in.
This means the rational use of natural resources such as sunlight, fresh air, fresh water, good earth, flora and fauna.
It is the responsibility of every one of us.
SEX DETERMINATION IN HUMAN BEINGS
One of the earliest physical manifestations of sex in a human being may be observed as early as the sixth week of pregnancy. Normally, the presence of external male organs in between the things indicates the maleness and the absence of such organs, the femaleness.
Anatomically, however, the internal sex related organs get established by this time.
Cytologically, the difference is significant. The presence of meiosis early in the embroyogenesis leads to the establishment of two groups of haploid cells. These are the cells that get differentiated in the embryo. The two groups get covered by diploid cells constituting the ovaries. In between, the uterus and other female sex organs get
differentiated. The absence of meiosis, on the other hand, leads to the formation of precursor cells awaiting meiosis, covered, in turn, by protective layers, later come to be known as testicles. Other organs get
differentiated in due course. The onset of meiosis in the male body normally starts at his puberty to produce sperms.
During the early stages of embryogenesis, the nuclear division leading to the formation of future ovules in a female body is of much
significance for the human race as such. These are the cells that should develop into ovules for fecundation in due course when the time comes.
The food and living habits of the pregnant woman, at this stage, is a determining factor in the quality of these cells. Any toxic residues available at the cytoplasm while the nuclei are undergoing meiosis, may cause proportionate alterations in the products, the very ovules of the future.
This leads to one more possibility. Making available factors which promote or hinder the meiotic process, the sex of the baby may be regulated as required by the parents. It should be done during the first six weeks of pregnancy.
However, the health of the ovule at the time of ovulation is yet another
factor which can only be determined through proper food and living habits of the mother to be, at the instant when her own mother, at the time of her conception, was keeping good living and food habits, congenial to the quality of the nuclei of the ovules.
The quality of the sperm is determined by the general health of the father to be. But specifically, the food and living habits in the preceding three months at least 73 days are decisive to the quality and quantity of the sperms. Even slight temperature (say 38. 5 * c) at the scrotum, should be sufficient to destroy the sperms or cells in meiotic division leading to their formation.
When both parents are on a special food and living habits, congenial to the formation of healthy gametes, the fusion pro-duct, the embryo, has better chances of developing into a healthy child, the citizen of tomorrow.
THE ENERGY FIELD
The vital energy incorporated at the time of gametic union, soon
establishes an energy field within the embryo sac. This energy field has spiral movements. The frequency of vibrations varies from place to place to complete the field depicting an infinite symbol in three dimensions on a single plane.
The first center is yellow in color (5.800 A *
The second ” red ” (6.500 A * ” )
The third ” orange ” (6.000 A * ” )
The fourth ” blue ” (4.700 A * ” )
The fifth ” violet ” (4.100 A * ” )
The sixth ” indigo ” (4.300 A * ” )
The seventh ” green ” (5.200 A * ” )
The spirally flowing energy completes the field by meeting the starting point after the entire orbit, forming an energy pattern. This pattern engenders maleness whereas energy flow in the reverse direction differentiates into femaleness.
This energy field, once established is active throughout in a specific pattern. It receives fresh stimulus with every ventilation.
When this energy is maintained properly in its own field, every process
gets established in a given pattern – the organs differentiation.
Four types of energy: Four levels during differentiation. A field of energy is established -the primordial spiral. (See Drawing)
a) Organ differentiation into anatomical organization to distinguish different (5) sense organs and (5) motor organs by deposition of cells and tissues at definite energy centers.
b) The energy spiral remnant presents two portions:
i) The polarity-duality; in-out; left-right; above-below.
ii) The “unemployed” remnant – subtle energy spiral.
The primordial spiral vibrates and the particles get deposited along the energy field to constitute a cell and these cells, in turn, get deposited along the spiral energy field to form an organism. Along the energy field, different specialized cells, tissues and organs, get established simultaneously, in a complementary manner, constituting
an organism as a dynamic whole.
It is interesting to note that the building blocks available at the time of this synthesis in the form of nutrients, are of absolute
importance both in quantity and quality.
Thus, for example, by 21 days of pregnancy, the heart of the embryo gets differentiated at, or in close association with the seventh center,
mentioned earlier. The concerned cells get differentiated in a unique pattern to constitute the cardiac muscles, responding to the frequency
at which this center vibrates. During this period, if at all there is any toxic residue around, the cells may get altered. Their alignment
may get affected both structurally and functionally.
On either side of the sixth center, bilaterally symmetrical
differentiation occurs with distinct expressions, such as face and the back of the head, and the left and right side features as well.
At the fifth center, multilateral proliferations make room for the complex brain and associated tissues constituting the head.
The fourth center constitutes a complex canal system associated with additional organs at the throat.
The third center is associated with gonads and organs around that area.
The second center conforms to the perineal area, where the energy flow experiences a bend.
The first center corresponds to the navel region, the umbilical chord representing the connection between the two successive generations.
The diaphragm divides the body cavity into two halves, the thoracic cavity on the one side and the viscera on the other. The rhythmic contraction and relaxation movement exerts proportionate reaction on either direction. The lungs and heart serve to distribute air and blood all over the body. The viscera serves to process the food and separation of toxic wastes through respective specialized organs after having incorporated precious nutrients into the system.
Floating within the amniotic sac in the nutritive fluid, the developing
embryo absorbs the nutrients through the skin entering the veins and thus the peripheral veins carry the nutrients to the rest of the body. The arteries carry the blood to the cells and tissues for their use and, as a consequence, the toxic products get eliminated through
specialized organs in the course of time. Some of these blood vessels, capillaries,
veins or arteries may get dried up while some remain for longer time. Therefore, the blood vessels at birth may have a different distribution
than that originally developed. Fresh vascularization is possible in the newly formed cells and tissues owing to differentiation in situ whenever required. This is often the case with neoplasia or fibromas.
At any moment, hardly 10% of the blood capillaries remain open. The rest closed. Alterations in the capillary walls may cause proportionate
There is a constant disintegration due to wear and tear as well as integration. While the integration is more significant than the
disintegration there is growth and expansion; when disintegration is greater than integration the deterioration is more. The loss of vitality is
progressive and when it reaches its lowest level, the onset of death is imminent.
250 millivolts >> 60 millivolts >> 6-10 millivolts
heteromorphic bodies bacteria viral particles
according to the surroundings.
Normal pulse rate per 24 seconds:
Birth 24 seconds 56 pulses
25th sec. 1 year 52 “
1 year 2 yrs. 44 “
2 yrs. 3 yrs. 40 “
3 yrs. 7 yrs. 36 “
7 yrs. 14 yrs. 36 “
14 yrs. 30 yrs. 32 “
31 yrs. 50 yrs. 30 “
50 yrs. + 24 “
CHAPTER 17 THE UNLIMITED IN THE LIMITED BODY
An animal by birth, after ten lunar months as pregnancy, is a flexible
new born baby -capable of just sleeping and when hungry, crying. But while sucking milk from the mother’s breasts, the intestines evacuate the residues as if it were a locomotive. The baby grows up thanks to the food consumed, air inhaled and all round attention from others.
Then the puberty gets in enroute to teens and to young adult. The process of degeneration proceeds faster than the capacity for repair and finally the body dies and gets decayed.
The lapse between birth and death is to be considered as a limited time and space opportunity, equal for everybody. But individual capacity
being limited, no one is equal to another. This is the biodiversity in its full expression.
The body comes to exist thanks to the food consumed by the parents, the food consumed after birth, capacity of the body for repair,
efficiency at growth, elimination of toxic wastes, and other external and internal
factors. Finally, this body gets degenerated, serving the microbes and worms with their nutrients. This is the food body. A corpse is the perfect example of this body.
The air one inhales includes water vapor, suspended particles, nitrogen,
oxygen, carbon dioxide, monoxides and other contaminants. This air stimulates the inhaler and the vitality increases. Once the terminals along the nasal cavity get stimulated, the entire body responds to this indispensable ingredient of our life.
This vital body has its own complexity invisible for the untrained eye, though its role in movement of the body is evident. Not everybody
is prepared to qualify for conscientious perception and perfection of this subtler body.
The diaphragm movement causes expansion or contraction of the thoracic
cavity, responsible for the entry or exit of air in relation to the lungs so as for the blood into the heart. The same diaphragm movement originates a wave of rhythmic motion along the abdominal muscles, and the abdomen reacts accordingly. The wave extends to the back of the neck and then to the head, thus covering the entire body.
It is evident that the elimination of toxic wastes through the
respective canals is also promoted by this rhythmic pumping action initiated by the diaphragm.
The diaphragm movement is normal in newborns, but later on, when maintained unaltered, the benefits are maximum. If by chance, this habit has been abandoned in due course, it is necessary to stabilize the diaphragm movement in youngsters and adults.
The mental body, consisting of memory, reasoning, sentiments (including
emotions), thoughts, as well as sensory perceptions, maintains its capacity in close association with other bodies.
The individual ego has two faces experts may tend to designate as schizophrenic or split personality to some extent. Internal and external
or inward and outward or potent and extent, as the case may be.
When one considers some qualifying characteristics, an obscure or shady ego may contrast with a crystalline face. Ego, however is covered
on all sides by three components: the yellow colored conscience, the blue colored memory and the red colored reasoning capacity. Again, the sensory perception (Audition, Touch, Vision, Taste and smell) as well as motor organs (voice box, genitals, anus, hands and legs) are closely associated with reasoning and memory but indirectly
connected with consciousness through emotions and/or sentiments.
Finer, positive sentiments (love, bliss, harmony, conviction, faith, compassion etc.) as well as negative emotions (hatred, jealousy, anger,
confusion, unhappiness etc.) of diverse colour combinations, nurture the conscience, but are closely associated with memory, on the one hand, and reasoning, sense organs, motor organs, and also thoughts, on the other. Thoughts appear in waves of diverse colours, intensities
Memory retains all conscious actions and this “go down” may be kept neat or cleaned up by appropriate practice. The practice of good eating
habits guarantees adequate nutrients in quality and quantity to the normal functioning of the body. Correct breathing habits help regulate
the diaphragm movement, just as that of any other voluntary or
involuntary muscles. Controlled breathing, on the other hand, is of use to regulate
the flow of thoughts and the processing of them. Food for thought, when supplied at optimum doses, can adjust the mental capacity,
improving the consciousness. When these three facets of the organism namely, the food body, the breathing body, and the mental one are in harmonious
equilibrium, the inner self can vibrate at a special frequency. This vibration of the intuitive body gives pleasures of diverse kind, leading
to ecstasies or happiness. To attain such experience requires a lot of discipline, but then in order to maintain it, the steady follow
up is essential.
By this constant, dynamic process, the ego gets clearer and clearer; at the same time, increases in size and strength, leading to a better generation.
This is the linking force between science and religion, each with its own importance, but together for the betterment of the human kind.
ANCIENT FIVE ELEMENTS
Evaporation of water during hot summer winds, dries up the ponds, lakes and lagoons. The water level in rivers touches new lows and at times, dries up altogether.
The moment the evaporated particles dispersed in the atmosphere come close, they become clouds through condensation. These clouds attain different shapes and hues as they are carried away by air. Commonly, when the clouds are low and get trapped by the mountain peaks and the temperature drops, the finer particles come closer and constitute a droplet of water. Several such particles and droplets form a drop of rainwater. When the cooling occurs suddenly and the temperature drops below freezing point, icicles are formed. The rain moistens the soil particles and makes a swamp. Excess water flows like a stream.
This rivulet combined with other similar ones becomes a river and several tributaries together constitute a river with its maximum
capacity expressed at its estuary, where the river actually loses its identity by mixing with the ocean.
This particle of water loses its individuality at every step, but in combination and cooperation with other similar particles it is even capable of forming an ocean!
Hence declares the poet-
Love for hearts is like
Water for fertile soil particles
Seeded nurtured opportunities alike
Bumper harvests miracle articles.
Food consumed by living organisms gets digested and its nutrients are incorporated into the food body, constituting each cell, tissue, organ etc. but its identity is lost in the process.
Air, entering through the nasal cavities or otherwise, gets incorporated
to the breathing body, losing its identity.
Stimuli from surroundings are perceived by the living organism through
five sensory perceptions and these get incorporated to the mental body.
Thoughts, emotions and sentiments also get a place in the mental body.
Finer vibrations get incorporated to the intuitive body, so that the physical, mental and spiritual bodies can be considered one, as a whole.
Ingredients consumed may be sensed and reacted to by any of the five bodies.
Every ingredient contributes to the quality and quantity of the product
that is an organism but loses its identity as a unit. However, if the consumed ingredient is inadequate, it may harm the rest of the systems at short, medium or long range, proportionally damaging the organism as a whole. (See Fig. 1)
The seven musical notes, as such, may not mean anything. But when combined with a sharp mind, that mind is capable of arranging millions of melodies. This music, when interpreted by muscular vibrations of the vocal chords due to air passage, together with energy derived from food, constitutes the complete symphony.
The mental body develops ideas, composes the syllables and words along with the musical set up. The physical body responds with the voice box and the necessary energy for convenient functioning of the organism
as a whole. The spiritual body experiences a subtle sensation called extasis, by composing, singing or hearing such touching music.
The therapeutical use of music has been practiced for ages, knowing fully well its physical, mental or spiritual effects on the human being.
When music gets synchronized with the body, mind and spirit, the
vibrations attain unison and one gets immersed in the process. Thus, a sound produced by diverse musical instruments, gets incorporated into the human being and gets lost over there, immersing the whole in the haven.
This is where the physical world fuses with the mental world and the spiritual world, to constitute a unique world of bliss.
Every particle is in constant change. An observer or actor, acts. For this action to be dynamic, the actor should vibrate at the same frequency, lose his or her identity and get immersed in the action. Then the act becomes memorable.
When one understands this dynamic process, the natural law gets evident-
constant change. That is, the old order getting replaced by a new one. The reasonable subject should not be carried away by either one, but simply watch the transition. While so doing, enjoy this process, do not convert the dynamic whole into fractions or reduce it to smaller
units to be subjected to descriptions or models.
In this way, within any natural process, the observer becomes part and parcel, since he or she is a silent witness. The experience is beyond words in any language but in a language of its own- that of a pure heart. A feeling, a finer vibration or something.
Philosophy is to love knowledge.
Science is to know and do.
Religion is to feel and experience.
All the four operations should be qualitative and quantitative.
all efforts to preserve unity among people, to improve work force, to enrich the humanity with ideas, actions and words.
laziness, cheating, lies hatred and all such human weaknesses.
resources, good deeds, vegetables and fruits.
manual labour, workplace, harvest, time and space.
* * * *
Light and heat flow at high speed.
Lighter air particles expand or contract and get displaced easily. Fluid water may cool to form ice or evaporate to become vapor. Earth particles get agglutinated thanks to the water particles. How about human feelings, emotions, sentiments, echoes, thoughts, subtler
Water particles in vapor get cooled down and come together to form a water droplet and hence, heavier. Many such droplets come together to precipitate raindrops. The rain water percolates into subsoil and water springs out of the soil to flow continuously establishing a river. Taste of the water is due to the dissolved salts available in the soil where the water flows. All identity of the river gets lost once the water reaches the oceans. The river serves through its course, every one takes care to reach at it, fetch water in the kettle they carry. By uniting with the immensity disappears its own identity.
Addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. All in one for all a river water’s mission.
* * * * (3+4+5+6) x (7+8+9+12+1) = 666.
This can destroy. It is the devils’ number.
But 2 = love; 10 = devotion; 11 = friendship
These can save.
* * * * East at sunrise becomes west at sunset due to the rotation of the planet. Exposure to sunlight during 12 hours of the day but the 12 hours of the night corresponds to the shadow of the planet.
Only one zodiac house corresponding to about 30 * becomes invisible due to sunlight whereas the other 11 zodiac houses become visible at night.
North-South sky with visibility of 180 * remains constant day and night, measurable with folded fist. Stand facing East holding both hands fully stretched at shoulder level, indicating the horizon. Close left hand fingers and hold vertically representing 10 * . The Pole Star is visible at night in the northerly sky at a height corresponding to the latitude where the observer is standing on the northern hemisphere. The dome can be measured with fist one above the other. Nine is zenith on either side. East-West direction is easy to make out once the Pole Star is located in the North. The rotation movement of the planet exposes the observer to the night sky in the following manner: at sunset six zodiac houses are visible, but their distribution is not equidistant in the sky. Closer to the sunlight, more constellations appear but, away from sunlight, the houses get extended. At midnight, about nine constellations of the zodiac are visible with maximum visibility. This equals to 270 * whereas at sunset and sunrise six constellations cover about 210 * from the spot where sun is visible. (See last chapter)
A map of the stars and constellations should be established based on this note. All calculations in the East-West direction are bound to be erroneous.
* * * * Incident sunlight constantly illuminates the planet from one side in the form of a cone. On equinoctial day, the planet gets illuminated
in the tropical zone where both, North and South hemispheres, share equal sunlight. Depending on the solstice, either north or south pole gets illuminated on such days when the other pole is under darkness. Nevertheless, the tropical region of the other hemisphere remains exposed to the sunlight. These rays heat up the particles of air, water and soil and thus the light gets reflected at the same time. When one portion of the atmosphere gets heated up, the other side of the planet, as well as the region unexposed to sunlight, remains cool. The rays originating from the northern hemisphere of the sun illuminate the southern hemisphere of the earth whereas the light from the southern hemisphere of the sun illuminates the northern
hemisphere on the earth. This change continues forever since the rotation movement
of the planet maintains the dynamism. The rapidity with which the air particles get heated up and get expanded maintains an expansion proportionate to the heating up. The cold air blows in and this causes the trade winds. When these tropical adjustments occur with tremendous speed due to the helical movement of the planet on its orbit, the wind speed reaches hurricane dimensions or may be termed as tornadoes. The winds attain certain heights. When the planet is considered along with the total atmosphere, these winds are closer to the solid core (so far considered to be the earth) whereas the outer sheathing portion
known as the ionosphere, remains heated up. The friction and the
multiple radiation lead to further heating up of this layer. The natural
activities in local conditions are within the range of tolerance.
* * * * A person feels. Those feelings may be happy or sad. This may be due to certain knowledge. On discovery of the truth one is happy. Sometimes
the information discovered is so terrible, that one would prefer not to know about that. Again, one suffers because of knowledge which others refuse to know or share or are unable to communicate. Ignorance of knowledge may be sorrowful. Therefore, knowledge may be good or bad. Who knows! Knowledge has no value. The added value is priceless!
* * * * Seven musical notes when arranged in a specific sequence and rendered through instruments or vocally, music is created. The quality and quantity of such notes is the factor determining the value of music. The state of mind of the person who hears, or ability to hear, are other factors to be considered.
Music like dance is enjoyed while execution of notes and moves. Mind the steps.
* * * * Five colours (black, colourless, red, yellow and blue) when mixed in specific quantity produce particular hues and effects to create a piece of art. The contents and message are good visual aids for ever, when it touches the heart.
* * * * When pressed adequately, sugar cane yields cane juice leaving the bagasse.
Some enjoy and appreciate the sweet juice. Others may be happy with the bagasse as raw material for some kind of fine art. Yet, another may not like either of the two. But there may be someone who would like the juice and the bagasse. Or even one who ignores the whole story.
The one who cultivates, the one who harvests, the one who crushes the sugar cane all get job and benefit.
* * * * When milk and Lactobacilus bulgarus come together, the bacteria consume the protein in the milk forming curd or yogourt. By churning this yogourt, one can get butter and butter milk. Both pro-ducts are good.
When lemon juice is added to the milk, it breaks down into whey and some kind of cheese, where whey may be good and cheese may be bad enough since cheese represents coagulated protein.
When honey is added to milk, it becomes a nice drink and it is a light laxative too.
When one fruit is divided by one cut, we get two parts: by dividing twice, the result may be three or four parts; by dividing thrice, we may get four, six or eight parts. Each portion may contain different
quantity and one quality. If you consume one by no more parts remain.
* * * * All have the same opportunity and are equal.
All do not have the same capacity and are unequal.
One opportunity should not be compared with one capacity. Capacity may change; opportunity may never strike again.
* * * * A point is said to possess no dimensions. A point has six directions.
* * * *
One of the very ancient literatures available is known as Vedas. There appears a stanza describing nine deities in directional sequence. For example, East Northwest South Southwest Centre Northeast North Southeast and West.
If a figure is drawn and numbers are written in corresponding places, a magic square is produced. In this magic square, the sums are identical
in all directions, whether vertical, horizontal or diagonal numbers.
Maintaining this order, even in a reverse sequence magic squares may be obtained.
* * * * (See Multiplication Table on page…..)
(4 4) (4 + 4) = 0
4 4 44 44 = 0
4 +4 = 0
(4 4) + 4
4 = 1 4 44 = 1
4 4) + (4 4) = 2
(4 + 4 + 4) 4 = 3
(4 4) 4 + 4 = 4
(4 x 4) + 4
4 = 5
4 + 4
4 + 4 = 6
44 4 = 7
4 x 4 + 4
4 = 8
4 + 4 + 4 = 9
4 + 4 +4
4 = 9
4 = 10
* * * * 12345679 x 9 = 111 111 111
12345679 x 18 = 222 222 222
12345679 x 27 = 333 333 333
12345679 x 36 = 444 444 444
12345679 x 45 = 555 555 555
12345679 x 54 = 666 666 666
12345679 x 63 = 777 777 777
12345679 x 72 = 888 888 888
12345679 x 81 = 999 999 999
* * * * 09 x 1 = 09
x 2 = 18
x 3 = 27
x 4 = 36
x 5 = 45
x 6 = 54
x 7 = 63
x 8 = 72
x 9 = 81
x 10 = 90
* * * * One house has four roofs with identical surface areas to hold certain number of entire tiles. There is no need to divide tiles anytime. Each time a person climbs on the roof top, the quantity of tiles he carries gets doubled automatically. If he has to leave the fourth roof with no more tiles left, how many tiles he should carry up the first roof? How many tiles he should mount on each roof?
Get the answer without writing on any form -blackboard, paper etc.
(Answer: 15/16 30/32 45/48 60/64 75/80 etc.)
* * * * 1/7 = 0.142857 142857 142857
2/7 = 0.285714 285714 285714
3/7 = 0.428571 428571 428571
4/7 = 0.571428 571428 571428
5/7 = 0.714285 714285 714285 <%2> <%0>
6/7 = 0.857142 857142 857142
In any process or phenomenon, action, reaction, interaction and final effect are all factors to be considered before arriving at conclusions.
One minus one need not be zero.
One yogourt minus one butter leaves one buttermilk yet in the cup.
>From one sugar cane one juice is extracted still leaving one bagasse…
* * * * Numbers represent mathematical units to express quantity. The
qualitative value of such units remains unknown. Such abstract impressions serve to communicate in numbers the quantity of objects in question.
* * * * However, when one unit is divided once, this unit gets cut into two units, maybe similar or dissimilar. When one unit is divided twice the same gets cut into three or four smaller units similar or
dissimilar, as the case may be. This process continues resulting in multiplication of units; while two units are similar they may not be identical nor qualitatively comparable. In this case, one is not similar to another in the strict sense and therefore. One plus one need not to be two. (See figure.)
* * * * Or one unit when combined with the other unit may cause an action, reaction or interaction between the two, one or both losing the original
form or quality. This process continues.
The phenomenon continues to be complicated when something is removed from something else. Once removed, perhaps it can never be put together
again. One minus one is not zero in this case.
When quality of opportunities is taken into account, all are equal. Whereas when individual capacity is considered one, it is never equal to another. Therefore, qualitatively or capacity wise no two units are equal.
* * * * Each organism should be considered as a spiral, asymmetric, unique, dynamic process limited in space and time. This process should, in all perspectives, be considered as a whole without fractioning
structurally and functionally. Individually birth, growth, maintenance, degeneration
and death are different expressions, with little or no possibilities of acknowledging the whole process, known as states or phases without factors, such as edaphic, climatic and biotic act upon the organism in diverse proportions.
The biodiversity is the final expression or sum total of several factors
in this dynamic nature. There is no possibility of any definite form in any individual organism due to the inherent dynamism in each case. In our planet, the tropical zone is rich in natural resources due to climatic factors highly favourable for the exuberant expression of biodiversity. It has been estimated that about 80% of biodiversity is located in the tropical zone. A similar proportion of world
population is located in the “tropical belt”. However, the 20% of world peoples living in the non-tropical regions, consume about 85% of the produce, leaving 15% available to the tropical regions. This situation leads to a new competition and an effective impact on the supply -demand sector.
* * * * Examples of suitable soft technology:
1. Activated Carbon.
The hard shell of the coconut is a by product, while copra is extracted
for oil production. The shell may be used as a cup or a kind of utensil.
This has served as raw material to produce articles such as buttons, ashtrays, clips and similar small items.
When dry, there is an essential oil which serves to heal wounds on direct application. Added to a soup while cooking, this essential oil gets mixed with the liquid and hence, by sipping the soup, peptic ulcers get cured. The shell is washed and dried to set on fire so the red hot burning coal is formed. At this stage, the shell expands with cracks when it is dipped in cold water so that the charcoal is obtained. This charcoal is washed several times and sun-dried. The dry charcoal is raw material commonly known as “activated charcoal” with wide applications.
The burning charcoal produces high temperatures efficient even to liquefy gold. Each gram of charcoal has 1.400m2 surface area for
absorption. This property renders multiple uses like water filters, absorb odours and humidity, noxious gases, organic acids, essential oils and so on. Therefore masks, pouches, filters and articles like those, that may be produced with high efficiency and at low cost. It is an ideal clean technology.
2. Solar heater, cooker, oven.
In the tropical region, the incident solar rays produce maximum heat. In the northern hemisphere, the rays enter from the southern side whereas in the southern hemisphere they enter from the northern side. Keeping in mind this fact, devices may be set in order to tilt the whole set up to get maximum exposure to the incident sunlight any day.
Solar heater consists of one absorbing surface, normally dark painted , a chamber to protect the heat, a glass top to permit the entry of light but to protect the chamber from rain and dust.
A passing cloud, mist or rain may diminish intensity of heat.
The basic unit may be described in brief: a double-walled box with glass top is all that is needed. A black surface within the box serves to absorb the heat, still improvable by using copper or aluminum plates. On the under surface of this plate, a copper tube filled 70% with water and sealed may be affixed to maintain uniform heating even during cloudy intervals. The glass top may be inclined to drain off water, either due to rain or condensation of vapor from within. This glass may be mounted on bushes, one cm. high along the side walls to make room for the vapor to escape. In order to place some trays or cooking facilities, some kind of wire net may constitute a rack. If necessary, a special door may be devised to open and close the box without moving the fragile glass top.
The climate of the world varies through the year following the annual movement of the planet along its orbit. This orbit being a helical never ending process, all that can be observed is a cyclic phenomenon. The partial illumination from one side of the planet, especially with maximum effect along the tropical zone throughout the year, but non tropical areas only for six months, heats up the components. The air, water and earth respond in different manner the solar days. All
particles get illuminated constituting light. But heat absorption and dispersion vary from element to element. Only the sum total effect alone gets expressed. Air expands enormously, water expands to some extent, while the soil particles least. The evaporation of water by the solar rays holds key to the rainfall.
The uneven heating up of the air produces the expansion of air. While hot air is moving outwards, cold air moves in, thus raising trade winds. The direction of this displacement is further determined by the spiral or helical displacement of the planet and the friction produced in the process. The twisting effect is due to the spiral orbit. The hurricanes and tornadoes are consequences of such helical movements. By heating up the nucleus of the hurricane by reflecting sunlight or focusing artificial light, the air expands to reduce the speed of the same and consequently avoids damage to property and life.
South west or north east rainfall follows the winds. The seasonal changes are expressions of partial exposure to sunlight.
Using sunlight, water may be evaporated and then cooled down. When sea water is used, sea salt may be obtained and potable water also as a product.
through an infinite spiral tunnel:
A reinterpretation of concepts about
our place in the celestial dome.
This work is an example of how to observe a dynamic natural process without prejudice in order to understand the same. No instruments were used during this work. The new scientific method proposed in our recent book ìEl Sentido de la Vida: Desde el Embarazo hasta la Muerteî (1994) has been put to practice as a demonstration of its aplicability to understand this dynamic process, use logical reasoning and arrive at obvious conclusions.
Even though these ideas were conceived earlier (In the book ìBasics of Natural Health: Nature and human wellbeingî, published in 1991, where the inversion of the world and the location of all the planets on one side of the sun are well documented), they became crystallized in the year 1995 at the Ethnobotanical Garden Chara Chakraî, Cuman·, Venezuela. Besides the students of an intensive course on Holistic Life with whom the daily observations were made and discussed, a young engineer, Luis Manuel Belmonte (Jr.), who on repeated occasions visited me at the garden to hold fruitful discussions with me, influenced decisively the idea of publishing this work for the benefit of readers at large.
Mr. Fernando Jurado, a close collaborator of the garden right from its establishment about 16 years ago, helped with the early illustrations of some of the concepts proposed in this work. Ms. Marta Rosinach, a student at the intensive course, took up the responsibility to render the illustrations in the present format, and design the booklet.
To every one of my friends who have given a supporting hand, I extend my sincere thanks. However, the responsibility for the opinions expressed in the booklet is entirely my own. If the readers enjoy and think from all viewpoints, part of the aim will be attained. The other part shall be attained when the rest of the world, and especially the experts, pass critical comments, and come up with more accurate calculations in order to bring all the affected dominant theories to reality so as to teach future generations a more objective and logical approach to account for the dynamic process which we call Nature.
Caracas, August 15, 1995
P. Keshava Bhat
Via tres picos, Cumana 6101
Modern science and technology together constitute a bundle of isolated, not integrated and undigested information on events and phenomena from diverse highly heterogeneous sources through space and time. Therefore, they are not fully reliable. A limited partial perception makes the collected data incomplete (confined to audition, touch and vision). The dynamic natural processes, in spite of being interpreted mechanically, have become highly lucrative.
Now it is high time to revise critically the concepts and methodology of modern science and technology along with its hasty theoretical conclusions before turning to the next millenium. A logical reasoning should help to improve coherence, reliability and precision in favour of a real science leading to human well being through adequate knowledge and action.
To conduct an intensive course for trainees in Holistic Life where about a dozen people from various parts of Latin America and Caribbean Islands participated, I had an opportunity to be again at the ìEthnobotanical Garden Chara Chakraî in Cuman·, Venezuela, from March 11 till July 1, 1995. During this period a systematic observation of Nature started at four in the morning and continued till 21.30 at night. The natural phenomena observed included the moon and its phases mainly to assist in agricultural practices like sowing and harvesting, dawn and dusk, the clouds, the planets, the constellations, a solar eclipse, shooting stars, stars, etc. Even artificial satellites were taken into consideration.
All the observations were made with unaided eyes, that is, without instruments. The general information from the available literature was sufficient to locate different celestial bodies (identification and follow up). The following information was noted down:
1ï Equatorial diameter of the sunís disc: 1,392,530 km.
One solar rotation: 26.8 terrestrial days. Herculean Velocity of the sun along its orbit: 100 km/second.
2ï Equatorial diameter of the earth: 12,756,78 km.
Polar diameter: 12,713,83 km.
Rotation speed on its axis: 0.5 km/sec.
Time taken for one rotation: 23 h 56 min 4,091 sec.
Inclination of the axis: 23_ 27í 30î.
The mean distance of
earth from the sun: 149,597,870 km
(about 500 light sec.).
Time taken to move along
an elliptic orbit around the sun: 365 days, 5 h, 48 m, 46 s.
However, see appendix for the proposed alternate values for these.
3ï The moon is a natural satellite of the Earth with a diameter of 3.473 km and maintains a distance of about 384.400 km; takes 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and 12 seconds to go round the earth but requires 29.53 days interval between full moon and full moon.
Only one face of the moon is visible from the Earth.
The following results were gathered from the daily observations:
1ï The Polar star was seen all along the 108 days at the same place (Fig 20.1).
2ï The visible planets (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) were located in specific places and their movements followed every night (Fig 20.2).
3ï The position and phases of the moon were noted down easily.
4ï The coloured clouds, the twinkling stars, the solar eclipse on the evening of Saturday the 29th of April 1995 were unrepeatable moments attesting to the constant dynamism of Nature.
5ï The known constellations: Great Bear, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Southern Cross… etc, were observed in their relative positions.
6ï The incident sunlight produced shadows of garden objects at different angles each day.
7ï Closer objects and their movements were more easily observed.Farther objects and their movements were not easily observed.
On the basis of all these data the following questions were posed:
1ï The moon being a satellite why does it take 29.53 days for one lapse between full moon and full moon, while the planet Earth (ìthe main bodyî) completes about 30 rotations on its axis?.And what about the daily changes in the position and phases of the moon?.
2ï Where is the shadow of the earth which is illuminated from one side alone?.
3ï Does the polar star go round the elliptic heliocentric orbit of Earth?. (Since time immemorial the polar star leads navigators in the northern hemisphere of our planet).
4ï If the axis of the earth is inclined, four seasons should occur daily and the polar star should move proportionately, but why is it that this is not observed to be so?.
5ï Why does the sun go round the 12 constellations (or zodiacs) in one year when these constellations are extended at great distances in the space?.
6ï If all the planets move round the sun in heliocentric orbits, some of them should not be seen during six months a year while the earth is on the other side of the sun. But they were visible every night. How can this be explained?.
7ï Will not the sun moving at a velocity of 100 Km/sec dash against the earth when it is on its elliptic orbit at 30 km/sec in front of the sunís path?.
8ï In order to maintain an elliptic heliocentric orbit should not the earth exhibit an acceleration deceleration mechanism?
9ï Should not the limitless atmosphere of Earth, made up of gases, be extended as a tail?.
10ï Gases like ozone should have decomposed into oxygen due to their low density, exposure to cosmic rays, reduced pressure and low temperature. During day time the ultraviolet rays reach the surface of the Earth causing among other things a reaction in the human skin (production of vitamin D), it also helps the bees to locate flowers. That means the ozone layer is present, or not, or may not have any impact on the environment arround us. So where is the question of concern about an ozone layer depletion?.
11ï If sunlight falls vertically over the tropics and horizontally over the poles, how can they enter the holes on the polar end?.
12ï How do we explain the colour patterns at dawn and dusk?.
13ï How far should we follow obsolete concepts in the name of modern science?. Science can progress only with critical, logical reviews, especially understanding the dynamic process of Nature.
14ï Therefore, can we not take this collectively as another example of numerous inaccuracies hiding our ignorance?.
Logical conclusions in response to such questions, at least to some of them, may be summarised as follows:
1ï The planet Earth has three basic constituents: air, water and earth.
2ï The planet Earth constantly receives light energy mainly from the sun.
3ï The Earth and the other planets do not go round the sun in heliocentric orbits. The spiral orbit of the sun opens up a huge tunnel, the sun occupying the head of the cone (Figs 20.3 and 20.4). The mass burnt up produces electro magnetic radiation all over, a vacuum on one side and motion on the other. The suction produced attracts all the planets in turn, each of them with a spiral individual tunnel, maintaining a specific distance from the sun.
4ï The polar axis of the planet Earth is not inclined. The rotation of earth on its polar axis produces partial exposure of the tropics to the incident sunlight, whereas the movement along the spiral tunnel of the earth extends as a torpedo in an equatorial plane, causing the seasonal changes (Fig 20.6). When the planet is at two sides of the spiral, the incident light illuminates the equator and the tropics; whereas when the planet moves to the lower side of the spiral, illumination occurs on the northern hemisphere or when the planet moves up the spiral the sunlight illuminates the southern hemisphere, respectively. (Fig 20.7, 20.12, 20.13).
The size of the conical expression may be calculated from the available data. The sun is at the apex of the cone; the angle at the source of light is 23_ 27í 30î and the position of the planet along the spiral orbit makes the rest of the seasonal changes at a constant distance of about 500 light sec from the sun (149,597,.870 km); the speed of the earth along its spiral orbit is 11.85665 km/sec. (Fig 20.6).
5ï The gaseous atmosphere of the earth is drawn up into a tail about 300.000 km long although its extent has not yet been established. The shadow of the Earth produced by the illumination from one side falls on the tail correponding to the night (Figs 5, 10 and 12). Because the air is not photographable it has not been considered so far as part of the earth (erroneously). The light from celestial bodies fall on the gaseous atmosphere making the night sky. When the full moon passes through this tail a lunar eclipse occurs. All planets with gaseous atmosphere, with axial rotation and transit should have similar form and orbits.
6ï All along the spiral orbit the twelve constellations appear in a specific sequence; when the Earth and sun are aligned with a particular constellation, the respective name of the zodiac house applies (Figs 20.9 and 20.4). The relative positions of these constellations being so complex and wide open in the cosmos it is not possible to explain them now.
7ï Variation in the quality of sunlight is possible due to the time required for one rotation of the solar disc. At the solar equator 1889,3216 m/sec light emanates illuminating the earthís surface so that in 26.8 days one rotation is completed. This accounts for the sun spots or alteration of energy received at different days. (Figs 20.12 and 20.13)
8ï In order for the moon to keep pace with the spiral orbit of the earth at a distance of 384.400 km it should follow a sinusoidal orbit twisting around the earthís orbit. This accounts for the daily change in the moonís phases. The waxing and waning of the moon are due to the relative movement of the earth and the position of the observer. (Fig 20.10).
9ï Probably the solar system has a spiral orbit with reference to the polar star so that its relative position remains unaltered through ages.
10ï Although the perils of green-house effect may be imminent, as to how far the ozone layer or the depletion of it is responsible for this is questionable. Even if there is an ozone layer and there are holes in it above the south pole, electromagnetic radiation cannot penetrate through the same because the angle of incidence of sun light varies from the tropical region (where it is perpendicular to the north-south axis) to the polar region (where it is horizontal).
The relative distance of observed bodies and lack of sophisticated equipment, professionally trained personnel and logistics were limiting factors to make more prolonged and detailed observations and calculations.
To admit a spiral model for the solar system, encompassing individual spiral tunnel orbits for each planet, leads inexorably to the modification, expansion or dismissal of present theories.
Mathematical calculations and tridimensional models and graphics on these lines should be developed for education purposes all round the world in different languages.
August 6, 1995 P.Keshava Bhat
Ten point comments on:
ìTHE COSMOS,THROUGH AN INFINITE
A reinterpretation of concepts about our place
in the celestial dome.î
1ï The three components of our planet may be identified as a solid earth, a liquid water and a gaseous atmosphere. Scientists include plasma as a fourth component. On the other hand, solid earth presents several types of rock, pebbles, sand and finer particles. Water itself may get frozen to become solid ice or snow, or it may get evaporated into the atmosphere. The gaseous atmosphere embodies air, water vapour and suspended particles including dust, organic materials like spores, hyphae, bacteria and flies of various kinds. The air that envelops the Earth extends on the side of the Earth away from the direction of its orbital movement. When the human incapacity to look at the air particles or produce photographic evidence for air are taken into account, it is obvious that the values for the gaseous envelope: of the planet Earth have been constantly ignored in all the calculations so far. The text book version that the planet is covered by 71% water and 29% earth should be rectified accordingly. The extension of atmosphere has not yet been determined accurately. The rotation of the terrestrial globe at a constant speed of 0.5 km/s on its polar axis indicates the spin of the solid Earth but not the air surrounding the same. The orbital displacement along the equatorial plane produces a tail-like extension of the gaseous atmosphere. All the measurements available so far refer to the solid core alone and hence the information is incomplete. Therefore, specifications such as 12756.78 km equatorial diameter or 12713.83 km. polar diameter become erroneous. On the other hand, the atmosphere plays an important role as this includes the biosphere and strategic airspace for transportation and communication purposes. The climatic condition along with edaphic factors determines the biotic factors and hence the biodiversity in the biosphere. The tropical regions are known for the abundance of living organisms and the biomass.
The former analysis clarifies that air, water and earth make up the planet which, on account of constant movement should actually take the shape of a comet (a solid core sorrounded by a gaseous sheath), not the shape of geoid or a globe. If we add plasma as a fourth component forming the outer limit of the planet then comet shape is even clearer:
A: Core of the planet rotates from west to east (light-day, shadow-night) indicates the direction of the system.
B: Displacement in a repetitive path 360_ per year.
C: Extension of this path with other similar units and the sunís herculean speed plus galactic speed etc.
2ï Any opaque object obstructs a ray of light and at the same time, produces shadow on the opposite side of the incident ray of light. Applied to our planet, the solar radiation received vertically along the tropical zone constantly illuminates one side of the planet (actually only a portion less than one half) due to the rotation movement of our planet. The side exposed to the sun light experiences the day light whereas the opposite side experiences darkness, the night-time. Earth`s rotation being anti-clockwise, that is, from west to east, at any place along the equatorial plane sun rises at the eastern horizon and sun sets at the western horizon continuously which occur in a regular sequence where the day light and the night meet one another. For an observer on equatorial location due to this rotation the eastern side in the morning becomes the western side at sunset. Rotation speed being 0.5 km/sec. considered at equatorial sea level, the length of one rotation is 23h 56m. 4.091s or to round up, 24 hours a day.
The shadow of the planet coincides with the night in which the atmosphere is extended as a tail. Only when this shadow falls on the moon an eclipse (lunar eclipse) takes place. A reflected portions of the fase of the moon is visible for observers.
The night sky is on a side away from the sunlight and stars twinkle through the tail of the planet earth. Other planets are visible at night time, away from sunlight.
3ï Our position on the planet from where observations are made, is located at the bottom of atmosphere but normally referred to as the surface of the planet earth. From this point our visibility gets reduced. We are able to see a conical area around us, the apex of the cone is the viewer (30_ solid angle) whereas the base is the firmament or celestial bodies. This visible cone extends along the tropical belt due to planetary rotation. The invisible cone corresponds to an angle where the sun is in the focal point and an area around and space beyond extending from the observer as apex to infinity. When celestial bodies pass through this cone they “disappear”. The celestial body may be located in between the sun and the observer or beyond the sun. (Fig 20.8).
The observerís position, when nearer the equator should have better visibility whereas when such point is farther north or south from the equator the observation range is lesser.
4ï For centuries the navigators in the northern hemisphere (as per existing concepts) have maintained the polar star as a point of reference (mere one degree) especially for its apparent constant position right above (90 degrees with equatorial horizon) the north pole. Thus for all comparative purposes the North Pole is, actually, in the upward direction and the South Pole in the downward direction. Even from our own regular observation its position seems to be constant .
Probably that star is moving in the direction of the north pole but away from it at 90 degrees from the equatorial plane of our planet (same plane as the solar equator and planetary plane of the system as a whole). However, because the solar system has moved along the circumference of a circle (a helical orbit) in relation to the Polar star its relative position has remained the same for centuries.
Of course, this circle actually gets extented into an open helix due to the relative movements of celestial bodies.
The range of north – south fluctuation of our planet, responsible for seasonal variation, is not necessarily due to an inclined polar axis. Assuming the yearly orbital movement of our planet to be a circle, the position of the planet along the circumference at any given moment is a point. Taking this circle as a base and the sun as its apex a cone may be drawn up.The angle at the apex with the axis is : 23 degrees 27 minutes and 3O seconds solid angle which so far has been considered as an ìinclined polar axisî of our planet. In fact, if the axis is inclined the polar star would become invisible even from the northern hemisphere, at some time of the year.
5ï The planets visible to our naked eye (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn) may be located easily at night with minimum training. Interestingly their visibility has no relation to their orbital status or in other words, they are visible almost every night. Such planets only become ìinvisibleî when they are located at the “same” zodical house (30 degrees wide) as that of solar disc.
Mercury 14_ R 12_
Venus 10_ R 8_
The planet Saturn for example, requires about 29.46 terrestrial years to complete 360 degrees orbital movement or about 2 l/2 years along one zodiac house. Jupiter requires for one full 360 degrees orbital movement about 11.86 terrestrial years, or almost one year to transit one zodiac house. Our own planet requires 365.26 days a full 360 degrees orbit; that is, to transit through the 12 zodiac houses.
This analysis leads us to an obvious question. If the planets were to follow heliocentric orbits on the solar equatorial plane, at least during six months of a terrestrial year the outer planets should not be visible at all while our planet is found on the otherside of the Sun along its orbit. But this does not happen. We can see them almost throughout the year.
If there be a heliocentric orbit for the Earth, on an equinoxial day (for example March 21) 00.01h to 12.00h corresponds to day time, 12.01h to 24.00h night time and on the next equinoxial day (Sept.23) 00.01h to 12.00h to night time and 12.01h to 24.00h to day time. This is because of the relative position of the planet and exposure to sunlight. Intermediate day night distribution should occur in between. this also does not occur.
Only when the planets pass through the invisible cone or the intensity of the sunlight does not permit observation they become invisible. The resolution power of the eye is yet another factor. The size of a planet and its orbital distance can make it invisible. An angle of reflection may be so wide that it becomes invisible. Of all alternative explanations analysed the only conclusion ever possible is that: PLANETS DO NOT GO ROUND THE SUN ON HELIOCENTRIC ORBITS.They exhibit a tunnel like helicoidal orbits individually, thus forming as the solar system, a grand tunnel headed by the sun itself. (tow sang vortex) The planets adopt this configuration in a sequential order: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto,etc.
The mass burnt up at the solar surface produces solar winds which reach a speed of up to 500 km/s while the sun moves at a speed (herculean) of 100 km/sec. along its orbit. The energy produced is radiated all around. On burning the mass a vacuum is formed where moments earlier there was the sun and the mass.
Spiral Onflow of universal natural dynamo (sound)
referred to as centripetal force, corresponding to the orbit of the sun or core of the tunnel holds all the planetary system in position. With reference to the planet Earth, this core should be located at a distance of radius (59552228km) of this circle
(Fig 20.6 and 20.11).
Although solar radiation takes place all around the sun, the planets situated along its equatorial plane thus receive light from the equatorial region of the sun. If the sunís rotation occurs at 26.8 terrestrial days light emission varies every instant and this accounts for the alteration of radio waves at regular predictable intervals. Even one small ray emitted from that point moves along the same equatorial plane to illuminate the planets that follow the sun. (Fig. 20.12 – 20.13).
Light from solar surface illuminates the planets along their helical orbits in such a way that on equinoxial days alone the tropical zone receives the rays from the solar equator whereas on solstical days the rays from northern hemispheres reach the southern hemispheres of the planets and the rays from southern hemisphere of the sun illuminates the northern hemisphere of the planets. Hence, the variation in the quality of solar radiation is obvious.
The clear visibility of planets other than our own is possible only at nighttime coinciding with the tail.
Those planets that are visible in the early morning hours must be on one side whereas those that are visible in the early hours of the night on the other side. However, when the planet(s) are visible throughout the night they should definitely be completely on the darker side. But observation shows that Jupiter is seen in the morning sky throughout the year but ìneverî in the year 1996 in the evening sky. Also,Venus was seen in the evening sky till 8/6/96 and reappeared in the morning sky on 16/6/96. Heliocentric orbits do not yield to this pattern considering the rotation of our planet in addition to orbital advancement.
The size and distance between any two planets as per visibility, should indicate the real figure. In a heliocentric orbit the distance is so much that even visibility would not be there. It would be also of interest to compare the size and distance of the sun to determine this possibility. The relative position of a planet, star, moon or any other celestial body may be located from the point of observation. The size of the object and the relative distance from the observer is a factor that determines the visibility.
The relative angle may easily be calculated.
Will the inner planet Venus on its heliocentric orbit be visible at all when found far behind the sun? What about the darker face of the planet along the orbit ? For how long ? What about the outer planets? That too during nighttime for the observer. Three dimensional models for all these celestial bodies should be elaborated for demonstration.
Daily rotation of the planet earth requires 23h 56m 4.091s and the year has 356 days, 5 h, 48 m, 46 s. Although 365.25 days are accounted for by the addition of one day every leap year, the fraction remains unaccounted for. On completion of one century one day should have been added to the calendar to cover this deficit. The Roman calendar was updated by Gregory XIII in october 15, 1582 therefore by october 1982 after four centuries the next day after 15th should have been 20th thus bringing in live with the precise calendar. By parliamentary decision British and American calendars were adjusted to September 14, 1752. An intelligent calendar should be based on sidereal basis, starting from a celestial special occasion. Lunar calendar may be used for day to day use to avoid confusion.
The space telescope Hubble or Soho can look at the day/night sky better due to lack of suspended soil particles in the air. How does light get reflected without these particles? Are they not reflecting solar radiation? Through Hubble telescope do we see waxing and waning for the planets? Do we see the darker side of the inner planets? What is the ìinvisible angleî near the solar disc? If Mercury is invisible what about Venus when its orbit is within similar range? What about outer planets when they are in this range? Do we have a location map of planets from its coordinates?
The twelve constellations indicate the 360_ of a dome at astronomical dimensions, the Polaris functioning as an axial reference to our solar system. This configuration explains the solar movement along the zodiac as visible from our planet through its helical orbit.
The sun moves along the zodiac considering the earth to be stationary with rotation alone.
When our planet moves in a helical orbit other planets look like they are moving retrograde in their helical orbits.
A revision of figures given as distances from Earth to other planets in heliocentric orbit is necessary when they are not going round the sun. Can there be visibility due to their size ? However, the pull produced by the vacuum sound left after the burning of solar mass and the push exerted by the solar radiation (solar winds) might be sufficient to maintain the planets in their respective relative positions.
Our planet known to be a sphere (excluding the atmosphere with air, moisture, soil and light particles) with curvature of the solid portion presents the equatorial zone to the direct exposure to powerful vertical incident rays, whereas the temperate and polar regions experience a diffuse light or oblique tending to horizontal rays with least impact on local climate.
The position of our planet along its orbit explains the four seasons: when it is at the northernmost point, the illumination is more along the southern hemisphere whereas when it is at the southernmost point the solar rays illuminate the northern hemisphere and on both sides the two corresponding equinoxial points may be located.
Again when the movement of the entire solar system at 100 km/sec. is considered along its orbit, the circle constituting the base of the cone gets extended as a helix or spiral. This is the spiral orbit of our planet proposed here. Similar helical orbits should occur for each planet, together constituting the solar system in the cosmos.
As regards our planet, it is at a constant distance of 149,597,870 km from the sun with an orbital speed of 11.85665 km/s. The diameter of the helix is 119,104,456 km. The annual distance covered is 3,147,229,551,034 km It is interesting to note that the planets in sequence present increasing times for orbits and the nearer the planet the shorter the duration, and the farther the planet longer the duration. Thus, the orbit of Mercury has the shortest duration, whereas the one of Saturn (the most distant planet visible to the unaided eyes) has the longest. The retrograde movement is an optical illusion along the mutual helical orbits.
Orbital details of planets other than the ones determined from our own observation require to be ascertained. The solar rotation takes 26.8 terrestrial days. The alignment of the earth, the sun and a distant star on a specific constellation establishes the relative position of our planet in the cosmos. The movement of our planet being anti-clockwise the sun appears to move in a clockwise pattern along the zodiac.
6ï Ozone layer: A Modern Myth Any scientific information gets wide publicity in the modern society with immediate acceptance. This may either be due to fear of being considered as an out caste or unscientific or simply because of astonishment.
Let us consider the hue and cry over the ozone layer depletion. The presence of a huge hole in this layer, the green house effect as well as global warming and so many speculative threats.
There is no need to worry about all these. There is no danger posed by these at all. The very presence of such a layer is questionable. Even if there is a layer and a big hole, the size of USA, the sunlight cannot even enter through this hole; let alone causing skin cancer.
Let us consider the heavy unstable nature of this gas. If the total available ozone is to be brought to the sea level, the layer should be about 3 mm thick. It is easily broken down into oxygen by several methods. Of late this layer has been extended at an altitude 8 to 10 km nearer the poles and 17 to 50 km closer to the equatorial region with barely 10 ppm in the atmosphere. So far there are no known limits to this atmosphere. The dynamic nature of the planet is evident due to rotation at a speed of 0.5 Km per second and orbital speed of 30 Km per second. There is no known mechanism to hold in position this ozone layer as a ìprotective mantle around the globeî. Even so, being a heavy gas, this layer should get displaced to the tail end of the planet as a mantle or cap away from the rays of the sun. The planet moving in the direction establishes Legrangian Point N_1 in between the sun and the Earth at a distance of 1.500.000 km away from our planet Therefore the heavy gas ozone should move to the opposite side corresponding to the night sky. In this case the ozone layer cannot filter the sunlight, specifically 240-320 nm waves. Even if there be a hole corresponding to the South Pole observed by the British team every October since 1957 some basic questions arise. Owing to seasonal movements of the planet sunlight does not illuminate the South Pole during six months of a year. Where is the possibility of UV light entering through the hole? Or during the other half of the year North Pole experiences darkness and is not receiving UV rays. How can the UV rays (240-320 nm alone) when arriving at this altitude in an inclined angle take a 90_ bend to enter through this hole, move northward along the southern hemisphere, cross the Equatorial zone into the Northern hemisphere causing skin cancer only in the caucasian people in Siberia or Canada?
Morever, the data gathered by the help of instruments (such as the Dobson spectrometer) mounted on weather balloons may not be adecuate for concluding the role played by the supposed ozone layer.
Perhaps more studies should have been made along the tropical zone where the sunlight is available all over the year. Thanks to this exposure the tropical children get their daily requirement of vit.D in their own skin with no filter whatsoever.
High technology should accept pluridimensional multifactorial data from such dynamic process like Biosphere, atmosphere or planetary systems and should not be limited to speculative fictions. Perhaps the hole has yet another logical explanation but far more fundamental in approach.
When a relatively heavy mass (geoide) rotates at a speed of 0.5 km per second and moves along a HELICAL OR SPIRAL ORBIT the air around with a different mass produces whirlpools. They get a funnel-like shape due to the displacement of the planet. The suspended particles in the air reflect the oncoming sunlight in the southern hemisphere in the month of October. When the geoid moves to the northernmost point along the helical orbit the sunlight illuminates the southern pole whereas when the geoid moves downward, the sunlight illuminates the northern hemisphere. Therefore, the hole is not in the ozone layer per se, but it represents the illuminated vortex it self.
Regarding the skin cancer predominent among the caucasians, instead of accusing the non-existent ozone layer how about considering the faulty eating and living habits which are the main cause of illness whether white or coloured people? This is not to defend the contaminants or their allies, the industries in general. Biocides, plastics, acid rains, fallout ashes, toxic nuclear residues, arms dumps, chemical garbage, CFCs, fuel burning and so on are destroying the biosphere on one side and exterminating the human species by causing genetic degeneration as evidenced by the exceedingly high rates of impotency and related issues.
For a scientific approach clearcut basic concepts, accumulation of unbiased facts and figures using a methodology involving minimum errors, logical arguments for a healthy discussion should have been useful tools beyond speculations and hightechnology. This will lead to the real advancement in a correct path leading to human welfare. We can only hope that necessary changes are made at apropriate places to rectify early and to avoid wastage of time, energy and resourses.
7ï The moon is a natural satellite associated with our planet situated at a distance of 384.400 km. The moon takes 27 days 7h 43m and 12 s for rotation of 360 degrees. However, the interval between full moon and full moon (or new moon and new moon) is 29.53 days; with the corresponding lunar phases.
It is evident that during this lapse of almost one month our planet should have completed almost 30 rotations along its polar axis and should have moved about 30 degrees along the helical orbit. If the moon rotates around the planet earth that too should have completed similar rotations and displacements. Since the movement of the moon occurs around the helical orbit of the planet the relative phases of the moon as seen from the planet earth is perfectly understandable. On the occasion of full moon, from the point at sunset moon is not only visible on the other extreme but throughout the night, reflecting the sunlight from one side of the moon the visible face. If by chance the relative position of the planet moves in such a way that its shadow falls on the moon to constitute an eclipse. On the other hand, when on a new moon day the shadow of the moon falls over a circular area of the earth a solar eclipse is recognised (Fig.20.1).
The relative position of sun, earth and moon repeats itself every 18 years 11 days and 8 hours when the eclipse occurs once again when the helical lunar orbit completes specific rounds helical planetary orbit
The association of the oceanís high tide with fullmoon is another phenomenon for comment. It is the sum total effect of solar winds pushing from one side, the orbital movement, rotation movement of the planet, etc exerting a push at the ocean in front of the sun with a low tide; and a corresponding high tide at the tail end (the night) when it is incidentally a full moon. The heating and cooling, the masses of water, the rotation and seasonal position along the helical orbit are all factors to be considered in addition to other celestial bodies that may have impact on our planet.
As a projection, the water vapour in the atmosphere, the climatic changes in this planet, production of fresh water by the biomass are other aspects to be considered in the global weather conditions.
8ï When celestial bodies obstruct the oncoming solar radiation the planet gets no sunshine and hence the water vapour in the atmosphere may get condensed into ice and darkness prevails. This would be the phenomenon of glaciation. By maintaining vegetative propagation through underground stems, tubers or seeds floristic biodiversity may be recovered from getting frozen. The animal Kingdom may not survive such natural calamity.
On removal of such obstacles the oncoming radiation warms up the climate and illuminates the planet.
By locating satellites which reflect sunlight this calamity may be overcome or illumination provided at the darker side of the planet.
9ï Solar radiation may cause alterations in local weather such as tornadoes, hurricanes, rains, deserts, etc.
Such calamities can be monitored by employing and exploiting adequate high technology.
10ï The sum total of forces such as:
– The attraction by the vacuum at the solar surface,
– Push by the solar winds,
– Centrifugal force due to rotation,
– Velocity due to orbital movement,
– Action, reaction and interaction with other celestial bodies like planets, satellites, etc.
constitutes the gravitational force.
Hopefully, this line of thoughts constitutes an explanation much closer to reality and coherent than any conventional theory so far available on this matter.
Areas of Application
Besides understanding our solar system better in a holistic manner this line of thought when persued answers to the following applied aspects as well:
1- Interpreting the orbital positions of the planet, weather conditions, air temperatures and turbulances may also be clarified.
2- Management and harnessing of hurricanes and tornadoes as natural phenomena.
3- Tidal wave production and movement in relation to the position of the planet along its orbit with a view to harness the energy for human needs.
4- Obstruction of sunlight by erratic celestial bodies, their possible effects on the climatic conditions of the planet and ways to overcome dangers such as glaciation.
5- Understanding other components of the solar system which follow helical orbits of their own while maintaining interactions among themselves and with the major planets including earth. (n-body problem)
6- By developing technologies to neutralize forces of attraction establish transportation mechanisms in the atmosphere without damaging the biosphere.
7- Prediction of earth quakes by observing the clouds and their colour patterns in relation to the phases of the moon, in order to take early preventive measures.
8- Utilization of reflected sunlight from variable solar radiation using artificial satellite systems to illuminate the nights with appropriate technology.
9- Evaporation of flood waters by focussing sunlight and then conducting the clouds in the atmosphere towards areas where rain is needed in order to maintain biosphere in optimal conditions. Due precaution should be taken to avoid misuse of this technology when and if succesfully developed.
Equatorial diameter: 376.756.78 Km / 140.756.78 Km
Polar diameter: 140.713.83 Km
Length of tail: 300.000 Km
Velocity of rotation: 0.5 Km/second
Orbital velocity: 11.85665 Km/second
Base of cone circumference: 374.117.680 Km
Tunnel’s diameter: 119.104.456 Km
Lineal movement (axis): 137.233.577.7 Km Base of the cone-sun at the apex
Real distance earth-sun: 149.597.870 Km
Distance traveled in one year: 184.108.40.2061,034 Km
Distance traveled one day: 8.616.409 Km/day (23 h. 56 min. 4.091 seconds x 100 Km/second)
Sector of the solar equator from which light is shed: 1.889.3216 m/second = 0.5 Km/second earth rotation.
Angle at light source at cone axis: 23 * 27′ 30″
Angle at earth surface which gets solar light = 66 * 32′ 30″ x 0.5 Km/second
Equatorial diameter: 1.392.530 Km
Rotation: 26.8 earth days
Velocity along its orbit: 100 Km/second
Mean distance from the earth: 149.597.870 Km (about 500 light seconds)
Diameter: 3.473 Km
Distance from earth: 339.714 Km
Time to go round the earth: 27 days 7 hours 43 minutes and 12 seconds
Time interval between two successive new moons: 29.53 days.
(1) Place of observation: the earth, all movements were observed in relation to the earth.
(2) All figures are diagrammatic and not to scale.
In a dynamic process an observer becomes part and parcel of the contents observed as well as the sequential observation each involving the others . When a person involved in this gamut is capable of logical reasoning naturally arrives at the obvious conclusion, the best possible solution. The established strategies and means to attain the solution require strict discipline and full freedom of action. That person who has decided for a change in life style should put it in practice. Once all the involved factors are set right the dynamic process will flow harmoniously. Physical, mental and spiritual health of that person will improve in such a way that noble thoughts and actions will flow from the depths of heart . Individual uplift when spreads to the community a social evolution is possible. Creative ideas and actions bring richness and abundance to all. That is the true healthy society anyone can think of.
Among the community members sound creative scientific processes may develop under such sustainable social set up. Human well being is the foal . First of all do no harm; human values should get priority above all other values. These are the two basic principles to attain that goal. A constructive science in turn will enhance the welfare of the community. Such healthy cooperative or interdependent self sufficient social orders are prerequisites for the implementation of the new dynamic scientific process. Hence the new science sprouts amidst a healthy society and serves the community . This is the community science .
A fundamental change in the basics such as concepts, terminology, values, life styles, priorities, outlook, etc. is essential to attain human endeavors like food, health, education , culture, social justice, agriculture and such other lines of thinking, talking and action. The present day life style in a consumer society leads to tendencies for material possession of more and more quantities without caring for the means to obtain the same and at the expense of higher aims. Which such material interests human values are relegated to the last priority with least importance if any.
Several kinds of emotional outbreaks are the consequences of such inequalities. In order to recover real human well being all such injustice should disappear by personal conviction , an act that requires conscientious voluntary discernment. Tolerance and cooperation should get in to the space vacated by the evil, earlier the better. Human compassion, love and mutual respect should prevail at all levels. All that is known as human virtue should be translated and transformed into practical use so that a formidable prosperous society may flourish with durable peace everywhere.
There is no need to wait for a total collapse of the present system with untold sufferings or diverse kinds of crisis for the crucial change. Reasonable revelations should lead us to a timely required modification in conduct.
The new society envisaged should have an organizational coherence strong enough to withstand all kind of
test. The basic goals and the principle still hold good here too. There should be a local administrative set up of the people from the neighbourhood who know the problems in detail and the possible solutions even when such problems are at initial stages probably within easy solutions. Every major field of activity should have a special monitoring mechanism within the local population who never forget the aims and means. Efficiency and creativity should get above all priority.
A cooperative life style with mutual help in every walks of life make a formidable society without the obsession of competitive spirit. Only when the social responsibility of each person is accepted and respected liberty or freedom has full meaning on the basis of the equal opportunity of every citizen to live and let live in harmony. However, even when there are equal opportunities for every one their individual capacities remain equal. In such circumstances in order to attain peaceful coexistence mutual tolerance and understanding without provocation among members is the obvious solution . A heterogeneous society gives opportunity for homogeneous goals and means. In such a community talents thrive freely. Recognition of talents. timely support for materialisation of the means, appreciation of values and virtues should lead to thriving creativity in a free world. Sharing benefits and responsibility with appropriate efficient means is the key to all round well being. This is human evolution in the strict sense.
Self employment either in the backyard garden to produce consumable fruits and vegetables or in attached workplaces at every household may solve many problems facing the present day population. Freedom of thinking and action permits creativity to flourish. With the workplace at hand family members and the community as a whole remain in boundary less constant contact for exchange of day to day experiences or opinions. Children and senior citizens get better attention. In this process each one can play his or her role efficiently.
Learning process by doing practical work is the best method.. Additional generalizations may be provided at schooling facilities with the help of collegiate efforts from among the community itself. Special talents and creative thinking should get ample opportunity to develop in a systematic way so that any technology resulting therefrom may benefit the community as a whole. New discoveries are bound to appear from such support.
Elderly people with sufficiently good physical and mental abilities find ample opportunities and time to be useful in their chosen fields in society providing practical solutions to day to day problems from experiences gained through years of dedicated work . Problems that are allowed to accumulate or grow become unmanageable or beyond solution. Early solution maintains problems under control and prevents bottlenecks. Elder citizens often find time to spend with kids, to play with them, to share with them their experiences or to enjoy Nature.
For organizational purpose ten fields of human endeavor can be recognized but their interdependence is stressed to maintain the common interests and goals. The grouping is for descriptive facilities only.
Agriculture: Production of vegetables and fruits of high quality and in sufficient quantity is possible in the backyard garden of every household. All organic biomass could be converted into fertilizer to maintain clean surrounding on the one hand and manure on other. All the members of the family get opportunity to share the work at backyard. Normally an hour a day of dedication should be sufficient to maintain a reasonably efficient garden throughout the year. As and when required collaboration may be available from among the neighbours on exchange basis. fresh vegetables and fruits can be obtained all round the year in tropical regions with sufficient irrigation facilities and human resources. For large scale cultivation especially monocultives such as cereals and pulses, fertile extensions are required with other facilities. For kitchen garden a manageable backyard, say for example, about 700 m2, should be sufficient for a family of five or six persons. This facility solves other needs such as transportation, storage, intermediaries, price range, post-harvest processes, etc. When large scale production is maintained all these steps must be solved by cooperative ventures and set ups.
Whether large scale, medium scale or small scale production exceeds the immediate consumption capacity or economists may say the supply demand equilibrium with high efficiency surplus, such commodities may serve for exchange with other communities who in turn may have some other product in surplus but not available with one community.
Surplus production of food stuff means a strong nation. Once every member of the society gets sufficient quantity of high quality food stuff all other considerations become trivial. More so this production is the consequence of community conscious work force of the locality.
Technical help regarding the preparation of the soil, selection of the seeds, maintaining the cultivation, irrigation, harvesting and other operational expertise should be available to the community through educational institutions of the locality.
Care should be taken to avoid all kinds of agrochemical and fertilizer that are harmful to the environment, for the users and the consumers. The same principle of doing no harm should prevail while applying agroindustry and high technology that may deteriorate the surroundings or the consumers.
Water used for irrigation may remain without contamination from pollutant chemicals or other garbage when proper care is taken in time. When natural soil particles are found in suspension in water of springs, lakes and ponds which flow as rivers or streams adequate mechanical filtering methods may be sufficient to obtain clean potable water.
Sea water may be utilized for obtaining sea salt and drinking water for coastal populations. Efficient solar energy based set ups may produce one kilogram of sea salt out of 35 liters of sea water. The evaporated water may be condensed and used for other purposes.
Additional condiments may be obtained and utilized in similar manner. Those cultivable ones may be harvested locally. Since a small quantity of condiments are used in food or other wise large scale production is not required. Any way if production is abundant and surplus other communities perhaps may require and would appreciate receiving such products on exchange basis.
Food and nutrition: When vegetables and fruits are available in sufficient quantity and of good quality useful information should be available for the consumers regarding other conditions of consumption . The present day mineral deficiencies, protein or amino acid deficiencies or vitamin deficiencies come primarily from incomplete information and vested interests. In a new society such interests are absent and hence useful information may be made available to the consumers through special orientations. Once the basic techniques and principles are made known creative culinary art may prosper at every house hold. Exchange of such experiences among other members of the community through adequate mechanisms should benefit everybody. The left over, either vegetable pieces, peelings or any such biomass may be incorporated into manure at the backyard garden.
Special nutrients for children or elderly citizens according to the age group needs may be located from diverse vegetables and fruits. Women require a special attention in the society. They are never equal to men folks in several aspects; they are in a special category where their nutritional requirements vary according to their physiological conditions inherent in their organism. For example, a growing girl may require sufficient mineral nutrients and vitamins to maintain her endocrine system in good conditions. A pregnant woman requires in addition to these nutrients extra dose of fibre to maintain the bowel movements in a stream line to reduce risk of constipation.
A woman around her forties may require additional mineral nutrients to compensate the loss of minerals from the bones and teeth due to known hormonal adjustments. Other specific conditions may require special diet restrictions such as disease conditions while receiving treatments. Many remedies may be incorporated into regular food habits while treating patients with natural products for detoxification , correction of disorders, elimination of secondarily symptoms or even regeneration.
Food and nutrition constitute important components of a healthy society.
Health care systems become meaningful considering the human being as a whole without fragmenting the organism into units. Preventive healthy practices include hygiene, clean air to breathe, fresh water to drink, good quality food in sufficient quantity combined with proper exercises. Hereditary factors play important role in determining the basic constitution of the organism. Food and living habits in a clean and relatively calm surroundings become complementary factors to promote physical, mental and spiritual health.
However, changing climatic conditions combined with the wear and tear of the aging process may produces various kinds of alterations in the organism. Any attempt to treat the person as a whole should make sure that removal of symptoms is not sufficient to declare a cure but rectification of the causal factor alone may guarantee a more durable cure. Again the aim should be to strengthen the internal vitality so that the organism can regain health and continue the living process along the normal course.
Child birth, death due to old age or other natural indisposition should be met with adequate preparation. These situations are not to be confused as ailments but as part of natural process itself. Member s of the community with sufficient experience may be in a position to lend a helping hand at all times.
Accidents like fractures, burns and cuts may occur in day to day activities and then specialists may be useful with their art of handling such situations accordingly .
Locally available natural resources like sun shine, air, water, soil, flora and fauna not only is sufficient for food but also for use therapeutically as well. Intelligent use of such resources requires a detailed knowledge regarding their correct identity, exact dosage, efficient preparations, time of administering or maintaining in store for use at a later date.
Most of the plants and plant products have been successfully used in traditional systems in the tropics for food or medicine. They are used as a whole without fragmenting them into active principles. Some combinations of different herbs have yielded synergistic results. Knowledge to use up every available natural product before discarding it as garbage or weed is the best wisdom available for the mankind which may be transmitted to the generations through schools.
The traditional methods of agriculture and healthcare systems may be maintained through conservation of still alive cultures rescuing them as far as possible.
Physical culture: In addition to household activities and gardening, teaching, workplace occupations or other inherent functions an additional organized breathing techniques combined with muscular toning popularly known as physical culture may be necessary for any human being.
Special games oriented at age groups may be organized and formulated for general benefit. Interested talent groups may develop particular sports as hobby or for recreation purposes to cover the available free time of the year.
However, in a free society violence has no place, not even in the name of professional games. Emotional alterations are conducive to hatred, vengeance or any such conflictive behaviour of the human weakness. Psychological problems may lead to violent confrontations with serious consequences to the harmony in the society. Team spirit and enjoyment of having played with physical ability and mental agility without expecting to win at every game should be the principal motive for such activity.
Space and facilities for indoor and outdoor games should be available for all members of the community. For regular walking exercises free lanes should be demarcated without danger from traffic. Vehicular traffic may be restricted to certain avenues whereas other roads may be earmarked for walking of children to play with toys. Shade trees may be provided along such routes to provide the road with shadow or when in full bloom for decoration or when in fruits, probably for eating. Visual recreation may be accompanied by tasty fruits to be enjoyed while on a stroll.
Swimming pools or fountains with fish tanks or water plants add to the general benefit of all.
Regular classes of breathing and relaxation may be conducted at local schools and other available facilities . All that has to be done is to adjust the time tables for use of the facilities.
Body massage and manipulations may be practiced for physical fitness or part of treatment whenever required. Talented hands may be trained with adequate orientation.
Conservation of natural resources constitutes an integral part of assuring a future full of hope for the generations to come. The present day exploitation of natural resources may lead to total destruction leaving nothing for the next generation. For the welfare of the free and fair society which is being planned and envisaged essential environment protection is mandatory.
Eliminating the toxic waste accumulation around the world seems to be of primordial importance at this moment. First step towards this goal should be to halt production of toxic wastes besides using technologies and products environment friendly. Safe alternate technologies are known to some extend and others are in the process of development. This is a positive sign. The use of plastics and other similar chemical substances get incorporated into organisms and become inseparable or get accumulated in the environment causing pollution without possible detoxification.
Change of personal life style starting with simple actions should be an effective solution to this problem. While using articles whose composition or capacity to endanger the surroundings should be verified in time. Such information must be available for all the members of the community, at least in the transition period until they are totally eliminated from the consumer market.
Use of tobacco and other products to produce smoke as a life style may have to be reconsidered knowing fully well the dangers to which people are exposed. This kind of decisions should come from voluntary convictions of those consumers who have been involved in such a habit on their own free will or get induced to the habit through others. Adequate orientation with outstanding examples from such social evils should serve as eye opener for the next generation willing to change for a better humanity. Those who refuse to understand and leave such habits may find no generations to follow them.
Mutual esteem and respect for others is the basis of a free society. A responsible citizen should be conscious of the process and should remind the one who tends to forget for a moment his or her own duties in the community.
Protection of air, water, flora and fauna is the common heritage of all the habitants of this planet without possessive rights or exclusive privileges whatsoever. Our responsibility is to conserve our planet at all costs. Any conservation efforts should be fair enough to maintain this planet intact.
Socio cultural traditions are all over the world. In the tropics with least foreign interference the culture is maintained in its purer form whereas in places with intromissions with others the mixture is evident. Colourful celebrations and participation of community members in large numbers maintains the culture and tradition for long.
Association of harvest season or spring festival or a little vacation after hectic activities in the field are all occasions to share the joy of the moment. Whether in the name of new year or bidding farewell to the evil spirits celebrations bring joy for everybody especially for children to show off with their new acquisitions The joy should last long and therefore one should be more careful.
Discrimination against people having certain problems like lacking modern schooling or latest modes of dressing and make ups might be unfair considering the presence among them of lot of useful wisdom in traditional non-formal knowledge. People may not know how to read and write a given language or may not pronounce a particular foreign phrase in correct phonetic style. But they do have hearts to feel and their warmth con be felt by others. They may have fun to share a smile. Care must be taken to incorporate these talents intact in any traditional matters. Just because one is trained in a way of life or in one paradigm it should not be sufficient reason to consider the others as superstitions or blind belief. Live socio-cultural traditions when they are worthy should be cherished for ever.
Particular faiths and beliefs constitute formidable ground for religious groupings with their own characteristic ways of life and means of practice. When these groups are not antagonistic to the basic goals and principles they may be promoted leading to harmony among heterogeneous groupings. Any authentic religion promotes integration and peace. Live and let live should be a fair deal for every one. Each one has rights to choose but that choice should not obstruct other’ s rights. When every one complies with inherent duties and acts with full responsibility the community is safe and healthy. This is to enjoy freedom and let others do the same.
Education is a continuos process of organized learning as already mentioned in preceding chapters. One
learns by doing and gets experience. Whenever there is an opportunity to learn make full use of the same and so also whenever there is a need to teach share your experience with joy. One learns even from teaching. Teaching and learning go hand in hand. There is no known limit to knowledge and wisdom. So is our capacity. All that has to be done is to foster our capacity to learn and teach in a systematic organized manner.
In any community all the major interrelated fields of learning should be incorporated into education systems so that every interested citizen gets an opportunity to know. If the information is useful it may be processed and action could be taken accordingly. A village designed in such a way should elaborate ways and means for a pleasant and peaceful life.
Many things, especially the finer ones, are not taught in educational institutions but learnt by one self. When sensory perceptions are improved as to their capacity and acuteness many more things become evident. Logical reasoning when applied to this accumulated information and the conclusions systematically organized the education becomes a process by itself. Those people endowed with creative thinking or constructive action should get further support and opportunities unravel “Nature ‘s Secrets”. Educational institutions should be organized to cater such needs of handful of people of the community. Their merit alone matters. The benefits of their talent will be cherished by the humanity for ever.
Universality of multiversality should attract talented persons and creative technicians to come together and produce consumer goods for local use or for exchange with other communities where the know-how itself become a commodity for exchange..
Security is yet another basic needs of all living organisms. Birds build up nests; beasts search for caves; honey bees construct beehives and so on every animal has one or the other mode of securing the shelter. Those who tolerate others and live in social groups have complex organizational structures as in ant colonies or other insect groups. When human being learns from such animals like insects perhaps we learn lessons to live in harmony and tolerance. Mutual esteem and respect are fundamental aspects for such coexistence.
Housing for family units may be considered as a basic requirement of humanity at this instant. A house with full services like fresh water, clean air, abundant sun light and sufficient space to move about, living and working should be available in any community. Sufficient space for a kitchen garden and a workplace for self employment in close proximity to the house ensures maximum efficiency with high living standards where human values may be maintained above other values.
Basic transport and communication facilities and a good neighbourhood of like minded people should be ideal place to put body and mind together. In this kind of environment family ties are ever lasting.
Taking into account the climatic conditions in the tropics mindless imitation of lifestyle foreign to tropics may be very unwise if not ridiculous. Designs should be simple and efficient in order to serve best the purpose. Locally available building materials maintain environmentally friendly living. Ample ventilation and light keep the surroundings fresh and lively. Taking into consideration the direction of winds and incident light especially in the afternoons and evenings space allocation and distribution of household activities should be designed. Furniture should serve the purpose not merely serve as show pieces.
In such neighbourhood when law and order problems are not created by any body maintaining the principle of not harming any body there is little need for security problems or solutions to such problems.
Each citizen dutifully respects others in all aspects no infringement is possible. Should any kind of inconvenience or hardship occurs due to negligence or minor errors pardon and excuses are human virtues which may be given an opportunity to manifest. Errors once discovered and rectified are normally not repeated, but remains a lessons for others.
Administration and organizational coordination :
Several multifactorial activities in such communities require least organizational structures, resources and functional means.
Best solutions for any problems are available right at the basic unit either a person or a family. Rarely the problem may extend to a neighbourhood. Those who live in close contact may have a practical solution at hand.
A neighbourhood can organize representatives from among themselves for detection and solution of problems. When every household participates in such social responsibilities work becomes easier. If
required such problems or possible solutions may be conveyed to another more inclusive community level where representatives from other neighbourhoods bring their inputs as well. Likewise levels may be extended to regional, zonal or central or national levels. This is the true decentralization where the true power is the basic unit itself.
An able administration should be efficient and smooth to serve the people and not to put more burden on the citizens. There should be a free flow of information in all directions.
Surplus human resources and material products or a fixed quota may designated to meet the needs of general functions and to maintain the organization with free hands. For example, other members of the neighbourhood may maintain the kitchen garden of the one who is busy representing the interests of the members at another place.
An organized free society should be the backbone of the new science which in turn, should serve the mankind. True knowledge managed by people with wisdom promotes peace prosperity and well being of a new society for the next millennium.
“Good bye to ruling Scientific Model, Proposal for a New Science” demonstrates that the modern science, Cartesian baconian scientific method, the experimental model, is full of errors in concepts and methodology. The fragmented reductionist information being
heterogeneous and defective besides being obsolete should be reasonably abandoned.
In order to satisfy the need for a better functional model a proposal is presented herein. This new scientific model takes into account the human capacity to perceive the dynamic process as a whole.
Thought provoking discussion and insights are presented all along the twenty chapters of the book, including samples of application of the new model. A few previously published articles are also included.
Critical comments and arguments are presented in fields of knowledge considered as separate entities like biological sciences, health related
themes, human genetics and genetic engineering, traditional heritage, anthropology, mathematics, celestial bodies etc.
Open minded readers are invited to understand and if found reasonably significant, to rethink in these lines their own field of specialization
or interest, to discuss the matter with colleagues and students who shall be the scientists of the next millennium in benefit of human well being.