Uni-Directional Academic Physics

“The First Law of Thermodynamics, which expresses the principle of conservation of energy, defines ”energy“ in a broad manner, including in this concept both kinetic energy and potential energy. In the reasoning by which the conclusions as to the eventual ”heat death“ (entropy and big bang lies) are reached, it is taken for granted that the term ”energy“ has the same meaning in the statement of the Second Law. In the words of the authors quoted in Chapter 14, ”energy flows always in the same direction“ from the highest level” in the hot interior of a star “to the lowest level”, a disordered cold soup of matter dispersed throughout space.“ But this is not true of potential (that is, imploding gravitational) energy. The potential energy of the matter in the hot interior of a star is at a minimum, while that of the dispersed “cold soup” is at a maximum. The evolutionary direction of this potential energy is opposite to that of the (radiated) kinetic energy. (Implosion)

It should be noted, in this connection, that there is no thermal motion in space at the temperature of the ”cold soup,“ only a degree or two above absolute zero. Hydrogen is in the solid state below its melting point at 14 K. In that state (a property of the individual atom or molecule) the thermal motion is in time (equivalent space), and within the spatial unit in which each atom is located. Thus there is no outward force acting on the atoms of matter in this cold dispersed state other than that due to the outward progression of the natural reference system. Any sufficiently large volume of dispersed matter is therefore subject to a net gravitational force, and will eventually consolidate in the manner described in Chapter 1, converting its potential energy into kinetic energy.

Thus the ”energy“ to which the Second Law applies is not the same ”energy“ that is defined in the First Law. The Second Law applies only to kinetic energy. When this fact is recognized, the conclusions that can be drawn from the Second Law are completely changed. It then becomes clear that, in application to the large-scale activity of the universe, the Second Law of Thermodynamics is valid only in conjunction with the gravitational law. The result of this combination, instead of being a relentless progression toward entropy a ”heat death”—the ”end of the world “ envisioned by Davies  (and the big bangers of academic fame)—it is a cyclic movement from maximum kinetic energy and minimum potential energy, in the stellar interior, to maximum potential energy and minimum kinetic energy, in the cold and diffuse state, followed by a swing back (implosion) to the original combination… with reference to the conclusions that are currently being drawn from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It is now evident that this law does not have the (dooming and limiting) significance that present-day science attributes to it”.  (Chapter 18, The Universe of Motion)